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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin A  COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin A  C19 studies: Vitamin A  Vitamin A   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Antiandrogens (meta) Metformin (meta)
Aspirin (meta) Molnupiravir (meta)
Bamlanivimab (meta) N-acetylcys.. (meta)
Bromhexine (meta) Nigella Sativa (meta)
Budesonide (meta) Nitazoxanide (meta)
Casirivimab/i.. (meta) Paxlovid (meta)
Colchicine (meta) Povidone-Iod.. (meta)
Conv. Plasma (meta) Probiotics (meta)
Curcumin (meta) Proxalutamide (meta)
Ensovibep (meta) Quercetin (meta)
Favipiravir (meta) Remdesivir (meta)
Fluvoxamine (meta) Sotrovimab (meta)
Hydroxychlor.. (meta) Vitamin A (meta)
Iota-carragee.. (meta) Vitamin C (meta)
Ivermectin (meta) Vitamin D (meta)
Melatonin (meta) Zinc (meta)

Other Treatments Global Adoption
Outcomes in COVID-19 vitamin A studies
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ All studies 59% 6 15,923 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk With exclusions 67% 3 529 Mortality 57% 3 267 Ventilation 71% 0 120 ICU admission 61% 0 120 Hospitalization 41% 1 60 Progression 48% 1 140 Cases 64% 2 15,436 RCTs 89% 1 60 Peer-reviewed 74% 3 15,587 Sufficiency 71% 2 160 Prophylaxis 64% 2 15,436 Early 79% 2 240 Late 14% 2 87 Vitamin A for COVID-19 c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Favors vitamin A Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Al-Sumiadai 86% 0.14 [0.03-0.61] death 2/70 14/70 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Al-Sumiadai 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.57] progression 2/50 6/50 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.004 Early treatment 79% 0.21 [0.07-0.61] 4/120 20/120 79% improvement Sarohan -282% 3.83 [1.58-9.24] death 9/10 4/17 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Beigmoha.. (SB RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] death 0/30 4/30 CT​1 Tau​2 = 5.08, I​2 = 81.2%, p = 0.94 Late treatment 14% 0.86 [0.03-26.4] 9/40 8/47 14% improvement Al-Sumiadai 64% 0.36 [0.23-0.54] cases 20/97 65/112 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Holt 56% 0.44 [0.06-2.96] cases 1/91 445/15,136 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Prophylaxis 64% 0.36 [0.24-0.54] 21/188 510/15,248 64% improvement Tomasa-Irriguible 71% 0.29 [0.10-0.67] ventilation 4/34 48/86 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tepasse 70% 0.30 [0.07-0.97] death 4/29 5/11 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.00086 Sufficiency 71% 0.29 [0.14-0.60] 8/63 53/97 71% improvement All studies 59% 0.41 [0.19-0.92] 42/411 591/15,512 59% improvement 8 vitamin A COVID-19 studies c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.85, I​2 = 75.6%, p = 0.03 Effect extraction pre-specified 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors vitamin A Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Al-Sumiadai 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.57] progression 2/50 6/50 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.17 Early treatment 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.57] 2/50 6/50 67% improvement Beigmoha.. (SB RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] death 0/30 4/30 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.13 Late treatment 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] 0/30 4/30 89% improvement Al-Sumiadai 64% 0.36 [0.23-0.54] cases 20/97 65/112 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Prophylaxis 64% 0.36 [0.23-0.54] 20/97 65/112 64% improvement Tomasa-Irriguible 71% 0.29 [0.10-0.67] ventilation 4/34 48/86 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tepasse 70% 0.30 [0.07-0.97] death 4/29 5/11 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.00086 Sufficiency 71% 0.29 [0.14-0.60] 8/63 53/97 71% improvement All studies 67% 0.33 [0.23-0.47] 30/240 128/289 67% improvement 5 vitamin A COVID-19 studies after exclusions c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Effect extraction pre-specified 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors vitamin A Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Al-Sumiadai 86% 0.14 [0.03-0.61] 2/70 14/70 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0083 Early treatment 86% 0.14 [0.03-0.61] 2/70 14/70 86% improvement Sarohan -282% 3.83 [1.58-9.24] 9/10 4/17 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Beigmoha.. (SB RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] 0/30 4/30 CT​1 Tau​2 = 5.08, I​2 = 81.2%, p = 0.94 Late treatment 14% 0.86 [0.03-26.4] 9/40 8/47 14% improvement Tepasse 70% 0.30 [0.07-0.97] 4/29 5/11 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.036 Sufficiency 70% 0.30 [0.07-0.97] 4/29 5/11 70% improvement All studies 57% 0.43 [0.07-2.74] 15/139 27/128 57% improvement 4 vitamin A COVID-19 mortality results c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Tau​2 = 2.87, I​2 = 86.5%, p = 0.38 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors vitamin A Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Tomasa-Irriguible 71% 0.29 [0.10-0.67] 4/34 48/86 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0089 Sufficiency 71% 0.29 [0.10-0.67] 4/34 48/86 71% improvement All studies 71% 0.29 [0.11-0.73] 4/34 48/86 71% improvement 1 vitamin A COVID-19 mechanical ventilation result c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0089 Favors vitamin A Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Tomasa-Irriguible 61% 0.39 [0.15-0.80] 6/34 54/86 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.012 Sufficiency 61% 0.39 [0.15-0.80] 6/34 54/86 61% improvement All studies 61% 0.39 [0.18-0.81] 6/34 54/86 61% improvement 1 vitamin A COVID-19 ICU result c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.012 Favors vitamin A Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Beigmoha.. (SB RCT) 41% 0.59 [0.17-1.28] hosp. 4/30 16/30 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.29 Late treatment 41% 0.59 [0.17-1.28] 4/30 16/30 41% improvement All studies 41% 0.59 [0.22-1.56] 4/30 16/30 41% improvement 1 vitamin A COVID-19 hospitalization result c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.29 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors vitamin A Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Al-Sumiadai 86% 0.14 [0.03-0.61] death 2/70 14/70 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Al-Sumiadai 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.57] progression 2/50 6/50 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.004 Early treatment 79% 0.21 [0.07-0.61] 4/120 20/120 79% improvement Sarohan -282% 3.83 [1.58-9.24] death 9/10 4/17 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Beigmoha.. (SB RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] death 0/30 4/30 CT​1 Tau​2 = 5.08, I​2 = 81.2%, p = 0.94 Late treatment 14% 0.86 [0.03-26.4] 9/40 8/47 14% improvement Tomasa-Irriguible 71% 0.29 [0.10-0.67] ventilation 4/34 48/86 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tepasse 70% 0.30 [0.07-0.97] death 4/29 5/11 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.00086 Sufficiency 71% 0.29 [0.14-0.60] 8/63 53/97 71% improvement All studies 60% 0.40 [0.12-1.33] 21/223 81/264 60% improvement 6 vitamin A COVID-19 serious outcomes c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Tau​2 = 1.69, I​2 = 81.1%, p = 0.13 Effect extraction pre-specified 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors vitamin A Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Beigmoha.. (SB RCT) 45% 0.55 [0.38-0.78] SOFA 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.001 Late treatment 45% 0.55 [0.38-0.78] 0/30 0/30 45% improvement All studies 45% 0.55 [0.38-0.78] 0/30 0/30 45% improvement 1 vitamin A COVID-19 recovery result c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.001 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors vitamin A Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Al-Sumiadai 64% 0.36 [0.23-0.54] cases 20/97 65/112 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Holt 56% 0.44 [0.06-2.96] cases 1/91 445/15,136 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Prophylaxis 64% 0.36 [0.24-0.54] 21/188 510/15,248 64% improvement All studies 64% 0.36 [0.24-0.54] 21/188 510/15,248 64% improvement 2 vitamin A COVID-19 case results c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Favors vitamin A Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Tomasa-Irriguible 71% 0.29 [0.10-0.67] ventilation 4/34 48/86 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tepasse 70% 0.30 [0.07-0.97] death 4/29 5/11 All studies 71% 0.29 [0.14-0.60] 8/63 53/97 71% improvement 2 vitamin A COVID-19 sufficiency studies c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.00086 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors vitamin A Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Beigmoha.. (SB RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] death 0/30 4/30 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.13 Late treatment 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] 0/30 4/30 89% improvement All studies 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] 0/30 4/30 89% improvement 1 vitamin A COVID-19 Randomized Controlled Trials c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.13 Effect extraction pre-specified 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors vitamin A Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Beigmoha.. (SB RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] 0/30 4/30 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.13 Late treatment 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] 0/30 4/30 89% improvement All studies 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] 0/30 4/30 89% improvement 1 vitamin A COVID-19 RCT mortality result c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.13 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors vitamin A Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Al-Sumiadai 86% 0.14 [0.03-0.61] death 2/70 14/70 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0083 Early treatment 86% 0.14 [0.03-0.61] 2/70 14/70 86% improvement Beigmoha.. (SB RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] death 0/30 4/30 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.13 Late treatment 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] 0/30 4/30 89% improvement Holt 56% 0.44 [0.06-2.96] cases 1/91 445/15,136 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.41 Prophylaxis 56% 0.44 [0.06-2.96] 1/91 445/15,136 56% improvement Tomasa-Irriguible 71% 0.29 [0.10-0.67] ventilation 4/34 48/86 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tepasse 70% 0.30 [0.07-0.97] death 4/29 5/11 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.00086 Sufficiency 71% 0.29 [0.14-0.60] 8/63 53/97 71% improvement All studies 74% 0.26 [0.14-0.47] 11/254 516/15,333 74% improvement 5 vitamin A COVID-19 peer reviewed trials c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Effect extraction pre-specified 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors vitamin A Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Al-Sumiadai 86% 0.14 [0.03-0.61] death 2/70 14/70 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Al-Sumiadai 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.57] progression 2/50 6/50 Sarohan -282% 3.83 [1.58-9.24] death 9/10 4/17 Beigmoha.. (SB RCT) 89% 0.11 [0.01-1.98] death 0/30 4/30 CT​1 Beigmoha.. (SB RCT) 41% 0.59 [0.17-1.28] hosp. 4/30 16/30 CT​1 Beigmoha.. (SB RCT) 45% 0.55 [0.38-0.78] SOFA 30 (n) 30 (n) CT​1 Al-Sumiadai 64% 0.36 [0.23-0.54] cases 20/97 65/112 Holt 56% 0.44 [0.06-2.96] cases 1/91 445/15,136 Tomasa-Irriguible 71% 0.29 [0.10-0.67] ventilation 4/34 48/86 Tomasa-Irriguible 61% 0.39 [0.15-0.80] ICU 6/34 54/86 Tepasse 70% 0.30 [0.07-0.97] death 4/29 5/11 Tepasse 45% 0.55 [0.16-1.00] progression 13/29 9/11 vitamin A COVID-19 outcomes c19early.com/va Jan 17, 2022 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors vitamin A Favors control
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases mortality, morbidity, collateral damage, and the risk of endemic status. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. WCH and FLCCC provide treatment protocols.
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