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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 studies   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Antiandrogens (meta) Lactoferrin (meta)
Aspirin (meta) Melatonin (meta)
Bamlaniv../e.. (meta) Metformin (meta)
Bebtelovimab (meta) Molnupiravir (meta)
Bromhexine (meta) N-acetylcys.. (meta)
Budesonide (meta) Nigella Sativa (meta)
Cannabidiol (meta) Nitazoxanide (meta)
Casirivimab/i.. (meta) Paxlovid (meta)
Colchicine (meta) Peg.. Lambda (meta)
Conv. Plasma (meta) Povidone-Iod.. (meta)
Curcumin (meta) Probiotics (meta)
Diet (meta) Proxalutamide (meta)
Ensitrelvir (meta) Quercetin (meta)
Ensovibep (meta) Remdesivir (meta)
Exercise (meta) Sleep (meta)
Famotidine (meta) Sotrovimab (meta)
Favipiravir (meta) Tixagev../c.. (meta)
Fluvoxamine (meta) Vitamin A (meta)
Hydroxychlor.. (meta) Vitamin C (meta)
Iota-carragee.. (meta) Vitamin D (meta)
Ivermectin (meta) Zinc (meta)

Other Treatments Global Adoption
COVID-19 early treatment: real-time analysis of 1,872 studies
Analysis of 42 COVID early treatments, approvals in 72 countries, database of 841 treatments.  
Treatments do not replace vaccines and other measures. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all variants. Denying efficacy increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage.
Li
Exercise meta analysis: 40% lower hospitalization [p<0.0001]
Mirahmadizadeh
261 patient ivermectin early treatment RCT: 67% lower ventilation [p=0.37], 46% lower hospitalization [p=0.22], and 39% improved recovery [p=0.27]
Popp
Incorrect meta analysis. Authors originally wrote a highly biased meta analysis that avoided statistical significance on individual outcomes with..
Karonova
110 patient vitamin D late treatment RCT: 86% lower ICU admission [p=0.11] and 7% lower need for oxygen therapy [p=0.85]
Santoro
7,824 patients aspirin late treatment PSM: 38% lower mortality [p=0.02]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Iota-carragee.. 80% [11-96%] 1 $1 394 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Proxalutamide 78% [70-83%] 4 $500 1,953 limited data Quercetin 63% [27-81%] 9 $5 1,279 Ivermectin 63% [54-70%] 88 $1 132,948 Nigella Sativa 61% [40-75%] 7 $5 1,977 Casirivimab/i.. 60% [42-73%] 21 $2,100 47,101 variant dependent Diet 59% [38-73%] 10 $0 585,652 Bamlaniv../e.. 55% [30-71%] 14 $1,250 24,423 variant dependent Povidone-Iod.. 53% [37-65%] 13 $1 2,749 Vitamin A 50% [-9-77%] 8 $2 17,951 Bromhexine 50% [-8-77%] 6 $5 684 very limited data Melatonin 49% [33-62%] 16 $1 14,009 Paxlovid 49% [24-66%] 9 $529 40,466 independent trial refused Lactoferrin 48% [30-62%] 4 $5 786 Tixagev../c.. 47% [18-66%] 4 $855 15,283 variant dependent Ensitrelvir 45% [19-63%] 1 $500 28 very limited data Ensovibep 45% [-276-92%] 2 $2,100 400 very limited data Curcumin 41% [32-49%] 18 $5 1,858 Exercise 40% [32-46%] 34 $0 1,464,632 Budesonide 39% [23-52%] 8 $4 9,951 Vitamin D 38% [31-45%] 82 $1 114,052 Colchicine 38% [26-48%] 33 $1 22,738 Fluvoxamine 37% [-1-60%] 8 $4 3,620 Peg.. Lambda 35% [-132-82%] 3 $500 2,116 subcutaneous Sleep 35% [20-48%] 7 $0 1,636 Nitazoxanide 34% [-27-66%] 11 $4 3,025 Molnupiravir 32% [5-52%] 11 $707 14,747 mutagenic/teratogenic Zinc 29% [15-41%] 31 $1 34,482 Metformin 27% [20-33%] 39 $10 118,536 Favipiravir 26% [14-37%] 43 $20 17,665 Hydroxychlor.. 25% [21-29%] 347 $1 458,192 Antiandrogens 23% [14-32%] 36 $5 63,329 N-acetylcys.. 23% [11-33%] 13 $1 24,349 Probiotics 21% [10-31%] 16 $5 17,535 Vitamin C 19% [9-28%] 45 $1 39,300 Remdesivir 17% [7-26%] 36 $3,120 123,330 intravenous Sotrovimab 17% [-71-59%] 6 $2,100 9,729 variant dependent Famotidine 15% [4-25%] 23 $5 76,267 Aspirin 14% [8-20%] 46 $1 129,616 Conv. Plasma -1% [-15-12%] 14 $5,000 15,607 Cannabidiol -53% [-616-68%] 3 $25 1,153 limited data Bebtelovimab -151% [-6014-90%] 1 $1,200 380 intravenous All studies (pooled effects, all stages) c19early.com Jun 24, 2022 Favors treatment Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Iota-carragee.. 80% 1 very limited data Studies, Improvement Relative Risk Proxalutamide 78% 4 limited data Quercetin 63% 9 Ivermectin 63% 88 Nigella Sativa 61% 7 Casirivimab/i.. 60% 21 variant dependent Diet 59% 10 Bamlaniv../e.. 55% 14 variant dependent Povidone-Iod.. 53% 13 Vitamin A 50% 8 Bromhexine 50% 6 very limited data Melatonin 49% 16 Paxlovid 49% 9 independent trial refused Lactoferrin 48% 4 Tixagev../c.. 47% 4 variant dependent Ensitrelvir 45% 1 very limited data Ensovibep 45% 2 very limited data Curcumin 41% 18 Exercise 40% 34 Budesonide 39% 8 Vitamin D 38% 82 Colchicine 38% 33 Fluvoxamine 37% 8 Peg.. Lambda 35% 3 subcutaneous Sleep 35% 7 Nitazoxanide 34% 11 Molnupiravir 32% 11 mutagenic/teratogenic Zinc 29% 31 Metformin 27% 39 Favipiravir 26% 43 Hydroxychlor.. 25% 347 Antiandrogens 23% 36 N-acetylcys.. 23% 13 Probiotics 21% 16 Vitamin C 19% 45 Remdesivir 17% 36 intravenous Sotrovimab 17% 6 variant dependent Famotidine 15% 23 Aspirin 14% 46 Conv. Plasma -1% 14 Cannabidiol -53% 3 limited data Bebtelovimab -151% 1 intravenous All studies (pooled effects, all stages) c19early.com Jun 24, 22 Rotate device for details Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of all studies (pooled effects, all stages). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages and outcomes depend on the distribution of stages and outcomes tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage and outcome analyses. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Ensovibep 89% [-127-99%] 1 $2,100 400 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Nigella Sativa 83% [51-94%] 4 $5 967 limited data Budesonide 82% [21-96%] 1 $4 146 very limited data Bromhexine 79% [28-94%] 2 $5 96 very limited data Vitamin A 79% [39-93%] 2 $2 240 very limited data Melatonin 78% [25-94%] 2 $1 91 very limited data Lactoferrin 76% [-485-99%] 1 $5 121 very limited data Remdesivir 76% [39-90%] 2 $3,120 934 intravenous Vitamin D 74% [45-88%] 7 $1 16,914 Povidone-Iod.. 72% [49-84%] 8 $1 1,078 limited data Proxalutamide 71% [-75-95%] 3 $500 1,175 very limited data Bamlaniv../e.. 69% [40-84%] 8 $1,250 17,980 variant dependent Antiandrogens 68% [41-83%] 2 $5 357 very limited data Aspirin 67% [-696-99%] 1 $1 280 very limited data Hydroxychlor.. 63% [53-70%] 38 $1 56,773 Ivermectin 63% [52-71%] 35 $1 56,821 Zinc 61% [-16-87%] 4 $1 3,010 limited data Casirivimab/i.. 57% [32-73%] 15 $2,100 31,102 variant dependent Famotidine 48% [-32-80%] 1 $5 55 very limited data Paxlovid 47% [11-68%] 7 $529 33,552 independent trial refused Curcumin 46% [14-66%] 8 $5 771 limited data Ensitrelvir 45% [19-63%] 1 $500 28 very limited data Molnupiravir 44% [0-69%] 7 $707 3,944 mutagenic/teratogenic Fluvoxamine 39% [-64-78%] 4 $4 876 very limited data Quercetin 38% [-8-65%] 3 $5 244 very limited data Sotrovimab 38% [-94-80%] 5 $2,100 9,369 variant dependent Favipiravir 37% [6-58%] 12 $20 9,844 limited data Peg.. Lambda 35% [-132-82%] 3 $500 2,116 subcutaneous Probiotics 34% [21-45%] 3 $5 673 limited data Nitazoxanide 33% [-78-75%] 7 $4 2,469 Metformin 27% [-94-72%] 1 $10 418 very limited data Vitamin C 22% [-78-65%] 4 $1 445 N-acetylcys.. 21% [1-37%] 2 $1 416 very limited data Tixagev../c.. 0% [-207-68%] 1 $855 903 variant dependent Conv. Plasma -93% [-687-53%] 3 $5,000 716 very limited data Bebtelovimab -151% [-6014-90%] 1 $1,200 380 intravenous Early treatment studies (pooled effects) c19early.com Jun 24, 2022 Favors treatment Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Ensovibep 89% 1 very limited data Studies, Improvement Relative Risk Nigella Sativa 83% 4 limited data Budesonide 82% 1 very limited data Bromhexine 79% 2 very limited data Vitamin A 79% 2 very limited data Melatonin 78% 2 very limited data Lactoferrin 76% 1 very limited data Remdesivir 76% 2 intravenous Vitamin D 74% 7 Povidone-Iod.. 72% 8 limited data Proxalutamide 71% 3 very limited data Bamlaniv../e.. 69% 8 variant dependent Antiandrogens 68% 2 very limited data Aspirin 67% 1 very limited data Hydroxychlor.. 63% 38 Ivermectin 63% 35 Zinc 61% 4 limited data Casirivimab/i.. 57% 15 variant dependent Famotidine 48% 1 very limited data Paxlovid 47% 7 independent trial refused Curcumin 46% 8 limited data Ensitrelvir 45% 1 very limited data Molnupiravir 44% 7 mutagenic/teratogenic Fluvoxamine 39% 4 very limited data Quercetin 38% 3 very limited data Sotrovimab 38% 5 variant dependent Favipiravir 37% 12 limited data Peg.. Lambda 35% 3 subcutaneous Probiotics 34% 3 limited data Nitazoxanide 33% 7 Metformin 27% 1 very limited data Vitamin C 22% 4 N-acetylcys.. 21% 2 very limited data Tixagev../c.. 0% 1 variant dependent Conv. Plasma -93% 3 very limited data Bebtelovimab -151% 1 intravenous Early treatment studies (pooled effects) c19early.com Jun 24, 22 Rotate device for details Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment studies (pooled effects). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all outcomes are affected by the distribution of outcomes tested, please see detail pages for specific outcome analysis. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Ensovibep 89% [-127-99%] 1 $2,100 400 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Lactoferrin 79% [-48-97%] 1 $5 547 very limited data Nigella Sativa 79% [35-93%] 3 $5 1,113 limited data Proxalutamide 78% [70-83%] 4 $500 1,953 limited data Bromhexine 77% [-39-96%] 3 $5 550 very limited data Povidone-Iod.. 72% [8-92%] 2 $1 872 limited data Peg.. Lambda 72% [-149-97%] 1 $500 1,936 subcutaneous Paxlovid 64% [7-86%] 5 $529 8,173 independent trial refused Vitamin A 63% [-246-96%] 4 $2 267 Curcumin 61% [29-79%] 6 $5 605 Quercetin 59% [-55-89%] 4 $5 683 limited data Probiotics 59% [29-77%] 5 $5 889 Bamlaniv../e.. 56% [5-80%] 10 $1,250 22,988 variant dependent Melatonin 54% [26-72%] 8 $1 1,828 Casirivimab/i.. 53% [15-74%] 8 $2,100 32,929 variant dependent Tixagev../c.. 52% [-9-79%] 3 $855 14,162 variant dependent Ivermectin 51% [37-62%] 46 $1 119,844 Molnupiravir 46% [-74-83%] 4 $707 12,413 mutagenic/teratogenic Exercise 44% [34-52%] 13 $0 1,437,929 Sleep 43% [10-64%] 1 $0 0 very limited data Nitazoxanide 41% [-30-73%] 5 $4 1,372 limited data Colchicine 39% [26-51%] 28 $1 21,010 Budesonide 38% [20-53%] 6 $4 2,786 Fluvoxamine 38% [-17-67%] 4 $4 2,744 Vitamin D 37% [25-47%] 47 $1 33,014 Metformin 33% [25-40%] 31 $10 74,262 Antiandrogens 31% [11-46%] 25 $5 59,469 N-acetylcys.. 29% [1-49%]