COVID-19 studies:  C19 studies: C19:  IvermectinIVM Vitamin DV.D PXPX FLVFLV PVP-IPI HC QHC Q BHBH CICI BLBL COCO BUBU More..
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00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Proxalutamide0.09[0.05-0.13]331,041RCTsStudiesPatientsRRCIFluvoxamine0.11[0.01-0.85]12277Povidone-Iodine0.15[0.05-0.48]33640Ivermectin0.27[0.21-0.36]265015,784Casirivimab/imde..0.30[0.19-0.48]444,793Bamlanivimab0.43[0.23-0.81]563,121Vitamin D0.45[0.35-0.59]52322,708Budesonide0.46[0.11-1.96]221,806Colchicine0.49[0.32-0.76]385,719Bromhexine0.56[0.40-0.78]55291Zinc0.63[0.53-0.74]295,660Favipiravir0.70[0.54-0.92]56750Hydroxychloroquine0.72[0.68-0.77]29232358,764Remdesivir0.76[0.62-0.92]51422,358Vitamin C0.84[0.69-1.02]461,020All studies combined (pooled effects, early, late, prophylaxis)c19early.com 4/14/21Lower RiskIncreased Risk
All studies combined (pooled effects, early, late, prophylaxis)
MedicationImprovementStudies AuthorsPatients
Proxalutamide 92% [87‑95%] 3 20 1,041
Fluvoxamine 89% [15‑99%] 2 13 277
Povidone-Iodine 85% [52‑95%] 3 29 640
Ivermectin 73% [64‑79%] 50 395 15,784
Casiri/imdevimab 70% [52‑81%] 4 4 4,793
Bamlanivimab 57% [19‑77%] 6 64 3,121
Vitamin D 55% [41‑65%] 23 230 22,708
Budesonide 54% [-96‑89%] 2 48 1,806
Colchicine 51% [24‑68%] 8 180 5,719
Bromhexine 44% [22‑60%] 5 56 291
Zinc 37% [26‑47%] 9 81 5,660
Favipiravir 30% [8‑46%] 6 100 750
Hydroxychloroquine 28% [23‑32%] 232 3,703 358,764
Remdesivir 24% [8‑38%] 14 232 22,358
Vitamin C 16% [-2‑31%] 6 74 1,020
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Proxalutamide0.08[0.04-0.18]22451RCTsStudiesPatientsRRCIVitamin D0.10[0.03-0.36]03162Fluvoxamine0.11[0.01-0.85]12277Povidone-Iodine0.15[0.05-0.48]33640Budesonide0.18[0.04-0.79]11146Ivermectin0.19[0.09-0.38]11181,942Bromhexine0.21[0.06-0.72]2296Bamlanivimab0.25[0.12-0.54]331,374Casirivimab/imde..0.34[0.18-0.65]222,879Hydroxychloroquine0.35[0.25-0.50]62644,235Zinc0.58[0.16-2.11]12626Favipiravir0.62[0.38-1.02]33410Vitamin C0.82[0.23-2.91]1198Early treatment studies (pooled effects)c19early.com 4/14/21Lower RiskIncreased Risk
Early treatment studies (pooled effects)
MedicationImprovementStudies AuthorsPatients
Proxalutamide 92% [82‑96%] 2 15 451
Vitamin D 90% [64‑97%] 3 18 162
Fluvoxamine 89% [15‑99%] 2 13 277
Povidone-Iodine 85% [52‑95%] 3 29 640
Budesonide 82% [21‑96%] 1 24 146
Ivermectin 81% [62‑91%] 18 175 1,942
Bromhexine 79% [28‑94%] 2 21 96
Bamlanivimab 75% [46‑88%] 3 40 1,374
Casiri/imdevimab 66% [35‑82%] 2 2 2,879
Hydroxychloroquine 65% [50‑75%] 26 414 44,235
Zinc 42% [-111‑84%] 2 14 626
Favipiravir 38% [-2‑62%] 3 52 410
Vitamin C 18% [-191‑77%] 1 11 98
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Proxalutamide0.09[0.05-0.15]22804RCTsStudiesPatientsRRCIBromhexine0.09[0.01-1.57]22178Povidone-Iodine0.12[0.03-0.50]11606Ivermectin0.24[0.14-0.42]8187,267Vitamin D0.38[0.25-0.59]4138,445Colchicine0.49[0.32-0.76]385,719Bamlanivimab0.52[0.10-2.71]231,551Favipiravir0.55[0.05-5.81]1192Zinc0.63[0.54-0.74]164,591Hydroxychloroquine0.74[0.68-0.80]12142246,222Remdesivir0.74[0.59-0.93]51322,216Vitamin C0.79[0.60-1.03]34550All mortality results (early, late, prophylaxis)c19early.com 4/14/21Lower RiskIncreased Risk
All mortality results (early, late, prophylaxis)
MedicationImprovementStudies AuthorsPatients
Proxalutamide 91% [85‑95%] 2 12 804
Bromhexine 91% [-57‑99%] 2 18 178
Povidone-Iodine 88% [50‑97%] 1 6 606
Ivermectin 76% [58‑86%] 18 155 7,267
Vitamin D 62% [41‑75%] 13 116 8,445
Colchicine 51% [24‑68%] 8 180 5,719
Bamlanivimab 48% [-171‑90%] 3 24 1,551
Favipiravir 45% [-481‑95%] 1 10 92
Zinc 37% [26‑46%] 6 54 4,591
Hydroxychloroquine 26% [20‑32%] 142 2,492 246,222
Remdesivir 26% [7‑41%] 13 225 22,216
Vitamin C 21% [-3‑40%] 4 50 550
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Bamlanivimab0.08[0.00-1.43]11769RCTsStudiesPatientsRRCIBromhexine0.09[0.01-1.59]1178Povidone-Iodine0.12[0.03-0.50]11606Ivermectin0.16[0.04-0.63]24802Vitamin D0.17[0.05-0.55]02127Proxalutamide0.19[0.01-3.90]11214Zinc0.21[0.03-1.47]01518Hydroxychloroquine0.28[0.18-0.43]01140,652Favipiravir0.55[0.05-5.81]1192Early treatment mortality resultsc19early.com 4/14/21Lower RiskIncreased Risk
Early treatment mortality results
MedicationImprovementStudies AuthorsPatients
Bamlanivimab 92% [-43‑100%] 1 1 769
Bromhexine 91% [-59‑99%] 1 11 78
Povidone-Iodine 88% [50‑97%] 1 6 606
Ivermectin 84% [37‑96%] 4 37 802
Vitamin D 83% [45‑95%] 2 13 127
Proxalutamide 81% [-290‑99%] 1 7 214
Zinc 79% [-47‑97%] 1 3 518
Hydroxychloroquine 72% [57‑82%] 11 158 40,652
Favipiravir 45% [-481‑95%] 1 10 92
We aim to cover the most promising early treatments for COVID-19. We use pre-specified effect extraction criteria that prioritizes more serious outcomes, for details see methods. For specific outcomes and different treatment stages see the individual pages. Treatments with only 3 or fewer studies are shown in grey. Not all treatments are covered here, effectiveness has been reported for many other treatments in studies. Of the 565 studies, 425 present results comparing with a control group, 373 are treatment studies, and 52 analyze outcomes based on serum levels.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation.
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