COVID-19 studies:  C19 studies: C19:  IvermectinIVM Vitamin DV.D PXPX FLVFLV PVP-IPI BUBU BHBH BLBL CICI HC QHC Q NZNZ COCO More..
COVID-19 early treatment: real-time analysis of 614 studies
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PXProxalutamide 92% 2
FVFluvoxamine 89% 2
PIPovidone-Iodine 85% 3
BUBudesonide 82% 1
IVMIvermectin 79% 22
BHBromhexine 79% 2
V.DVitamin D 78% 3
BLBamlanivimab 75% 3
CICasiri/imdevimab 66% 2
(H)CQHydroxychloroquine 65% 26
NZNitazoxanide 49% 5
ZnZinc 42% 2
FPVFavipiravir 38% 3
V.CVitamin C 18% 1
RDRemdesivir - 0
COColchicine - 0
ICIota-carrageenan - 0
Global adoption of early treatments. Studies and improvement refer to early treatment. Countries ordered by population. Official:
  Unofficial:[0.05-0.13]331,041RCTsStudiesPatientsRRCIFluvoxamine0.11[0.01-0.85]12277Iota-carrageenan0.20[0.04-0.91]11394Ivermectin0.27[0.21-0.35]285517,730Casirivimab/imde..0.30[0.19-0.48]444,793Povidone-Iodine0.32[0.12-0.81]441,994Nitazoxanide0.42[0.14-1.30]461,464Bamlanivimab0.43[0.23-0.81]563,121Budesonide0.46[0.11-1.96]221,806Vitamin D0.47[0.36-0.60]52323,046Bromhexine0.56[0.40-0.78]55291Colchicine0.57[0.38-0.85]495,719Zinc0.61[0.52-0.71]3106,913Favipiravir0.72[0.57-0.92]792,169Hydroxychloroquine0.73[0.69-0.77]33242367,509Remdesivir0.76[0.62-0.92]51523,349Vitamin C0.80[0.67-0.96]591,344All studies combined (pooled effects, all stages) 5/15/21Lower RiskIncreased Risk
MedicationImprovementStudies AuthorsPatients
Proxalutamide 92% [87‑95%] 3 20 1,041
Fluvoxamine 89% [15‑99%] 2 13 277
Iota-carrageenan 80% [9‑96%] 1 18 394
Ivermectin 73% [65‑79%] 55 459 17,730
Casiri/imdevimab 70% [52‑81%] 4 4 4,793
Povidone-Iodine 68% [19‑88%] 4 44 1,994
Nitazoxanide 58% [-30‑86%] 6 87 1,464
Bamlanivimab 57% [19‑77%] 6 64 3,121
Budesonide 54% [-96‑89%] 2 48 1,806
Vitamin D 53% [40‑64%] 23 236 23,046
Bromhexine 44% [22‑60%] 5 56 291
Colchicine 43% [15‑62%] 9 182 5,719
Zinc 39% [29‑48%] 10 96 6,913
Favipiravir 28% [8‑43%] 9 176 2,169
Hydroxychloroquine 27% [23‑31%] 242 3,892 367,509
Remdesivir 24% [8‑38%] 15 239 23,349
Vitamin C 20% [4‑33%] 9 104 1,344
Random effects meta-analysis of all studies combined (pooled effects, all stages). Treatments with 3 or fewer studies are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages and outcomes depend on the distribution of stages and outcomes tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage and outcome analyses.[0.04-0.18]22451RCTsStudiesPatientsRRCIFluvoxamine0.11[0.01-0.85]12277Povidone-Iodine0.15[0.05-0.48]33640Budesonide0.18[0.04-0.79]11146Ivermectin0.21[0.11-0.37]13222,510Bromhexine0.21[0.06-0.72]2296Vitamin D0.22[0.12-0.43]03500Bamlanivimab0.25[0.12-0.54]331,374Casirivimab/imde..0.34[0.18-0.65]222,879Hydroxychloroquine0.35[0.25-0.50]62644,235Nitazoxanide0.51[0.12-2.27]351,414Zinc0.58[0.16-2.11]12626Favipiravir0.62[0.38-1.02]33410Vitamin C0.82[0.23-2.91]1198Early treatment studies (pooled effects) 5/15/21Lower RiskIncreased Risk
MedicationImprovementStudies AuthorsPatients
Proxalutamide 92% [82‑96%] 2 15 451
Fluvoxamine 89% [15‑99%] 2 13 277
Povidone-Iodine 85% [52‑95%] 3 29 640
Budesonide 82% [21‑96%] 1 24 146
Ivermectin 79% [63‑89%] 22 202 2,510
Bromhexine 79% [28‑94%] 2 21 96
Vitamin D 78% [57‑88%] 3 24 500
Bamlanivimab 75% [46‑88%] 3 40 1,374
Casiri/imdevimab 66% [35‑82%] 2 2 2,879
Hydroxychloroquine 65% [50‑75%] 26 414 44,235
Nitazoxanide 49% [-127‑88%] 5 67 1,414
Zinc 42% [-111‑84%] 2 14 626
Favipiravir 38% [-2‑62%] 3 52 410
Vitamin C 18% [-191‑77%] 1 11 98
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment studies (pooled effects). Treatments with 3 or fewer studies are shown in grey. Pooled results across all outcomes are affected by the distribution of outcomes tested, please see detail pages for specific outcome analysis.[0.05-0.15]22804RCTsStudiesPatientsRRCIBromhexine0.09[0.01-1.57]22178Povidone-Iodine0.12[0.03-0.50]11606Ivermectin0.26[0.15-0.44]9207,361Vitamin D0.37[0.25-0.55]4148,818Nitazoxanide0.40[0.10-1.58]23923Bamlanivimab0.52[0.10-2.71]231,551Colchicine0.57[0.38-0.85]495,719Zinc0.63[0.54-0.74]164,591Remdesivir0.74[0.59-0.93]51423,207Hydroxychloroquine0.75[0.69-0.82]15151253,916Vitamin C0.75[0.59-0.95]36802Favipiravir1.04[0.66-1.66]231,456All mortality results (all stages) 5/15/21Lower RiskIncreased Risk
MedicationImprovementStudies AuthorsPatients
Proxalutamide 91% [85‑95%] 2 12 804
Bromhexine 91% [-57‑99%] 2 18 178
Povidone-Iodine 88% [50‑97%] 1 6 606
Ivermectin 74% [56‑85%] 20 179 7,361
Vitamin D 63% [45‑75%] 14 127 8,818
Nitazoxanide 60% [-58‑90%] 3 32 923
Bamlanivimab 48% [-171‑90%] 3 24 1,551
Colchicine 43% [15‑62%] 9 182 5,719
Zinc 37% [26‑46%] 6 54 4,591
Remdesivir 26% [7‑41%] 14 232 23,207
Hydroxychloroquine 25% [18‑31%] 151 2,666 253,916
Vitamin C 25% [5‑41%] 6 72 802
Favipiravir -4% [-66‑34%] 3 61 1,456
Random effects meta-analysis of all mortality results (all stages). Treatments with 3 or fewer studies are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages depend on the distribution of stages tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage analyses.[0.00-1.43]11769RCTsStudiesPatientsRRCIBromhexine0.09[0.01-1.59]1178Povidone-Iodine0.12[0.03-0.50]11606Ivermectin0.19[0.07-0.54]361,193Proxalutamide0.19[0.01-3.90]11214Zinc0.21[0.03-1.47]01518Vitamin D0.22[0.12-0.43]03500Hydroxychloroquine0.28[0.18-0.43]01140,652Favipiravir0.55[0.05-5.81]1192Nitazoxanide0.59[0.02-13.78]12873Early treatment mortality 5/15/21Lower RiskIncreased Risk
MedicationImprovementStudies AuthorsPatients
Bamlanivimab 92% [-43‑100%] 1 1 769
Bromhexine 91% [-59‑99%] 1 11 78
Povidone-Iodine 88% [50‑97%] 1 6 606
Ivermectin 81% [46‑93%] 6 54 1,193
Proxalutamide 81% [-290‑99%] 1 7 214
Zinc 79% [-47‑97%] 1 3 518
Vitamin D 78% [57‑88%] 3 24 500
Hydroxychloroquine 72% [57‑82%] 11 158 40,652
Favipiravir 45% [-481‑95%] 1 10 92
Nitazoxanide 41% [-1278‑98%] 2 12 873
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment mortality results. Treatments with 3 or fewer studies are shown in grey.
Recent studies (see the individual treatment pages for all studies):

News FLCCC Public Statement (News) news FLCCC Alliance Statement on the Irregular Actions of Public Health Agencies and the Widespread Disinformation Campaign Against Ivermectin
Analysis of the ivermectin recommendations from WHO and others, and a call to action for all citizens, scientists, and media to counter false information. Whistleblowers can submit anonymous reports and images at the bottom of this page.
Early Faisal et al., The Professional Medical Journal, doi:10.29309/TPMJ/2021.28.05.5867 (Peer Reviewed) no recov., ↓68.4%, p=0.005 Potential use of azithromycin alone and in combination with ivermectin in fighting against the symptoms of COVID-19
RCT 100 outpatients in Pakistan, 50 treated with ivermectin, showing faster recovery with ivermectin. All patients received AZ, zinc, vitamin C, vitamin D, and paracetemol. Details of randomization were not provided. No mortality or hospi..
In Vitro Konduri et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.05.05.442779 (Preprint) (In Vitro) in vitro ProLung™-budesonide Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Replication and Reduces Lung Inflammation
In Vitro study and animal study showing that ProLung™-budesonide inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication (results for budesonide were not provided). ProLung™-budesonide and budesonide significantly decreased lung inflammation. ProLung™-budesonide..
In Vitro Zatloukal et al. (News) (In Vitro) news News report on In Vitro results from the research institute of Prof. Zatloukal
News report on In Vitro results from the research institute of Prof. Zatloukal, showing that "ivermectin was able to reduce virus replication by a factor of 1,000 even at low concentrations".
In Silico Qureshi et al., Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, doi:10.1080/07391102.2021.1906750 (Peer Reviewed) Mechanistic insights into the inhibitory activity of FDA approved ivermectin against SARS-CoV-2: old drug with new implications
In Silico study showing inhibition of importin-α1 by ivermectin, which disrupts SARS-CoV-2 replication.
Meta Liao et al., Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, doi:10.1016/j.jfma.2021.04.026 (Peer Reviewed) meta-analysis Assessing Efficacy of Antiviral Therapy for COVID-19 Patients: A Case Study on Remdesivir with Bayesian Synthesis Design and Multistate Analysis
Bayesian synthesis design and multistate analysis of remdesivir results showing 31% [18-44%] lower risk of death and 10% [1-18%] higher recovery.
Meta Karale et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.30.21256415 (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis A Meta-analysis of Mortality, Need for ICU admission, Use of Mechanical Ventilation and Adverse Effects with Ivermectin Use in COVID-19 Patients
Systematic review and meta analysis with 30 studies included in quantitative analysis, showing mortality OR 0.39 [0.22-0.70]. Subgroup analysis of trials with severity data showed mortality OR 0.10 [0.03-0.33] for mild/moderate cases.
Early Merino et al., SocArXiv Papers, doi:10.31235/ (Preprint) hosp., ↓74.4%, p<0.001 Ivermectin and the odds of hospitalization due to COVID-19: evidence from a quasi-experimental analysis based on a public intervention in Mexico City
Analysis of Mexico City's use of an ivermectin-based medical kit, showing significantly lower hospitalization with use. Authors use logistic-regression models with matched observations, including adjustments for age, sex, COVID severity, ..
In Silico Malla et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.05.02.442358 (Preprint) Vitamin C inhibits SARS coronavirus-2 main protease essential for viral replication
In Vitro study showing that vitamin C inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Authors note that the different clinical results may be explained in part by the widely varying dosages used, and they conclude that vitamin C and/or derivatives may become..
Late De Rosa et al., J. Clin. Med., doi:10.3390/jcm10091951 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓35.0%, p=0.003 Risk Factors for Mortality in COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients in Piedmont, Italy: Results from the Multicenter, Regional, CORACLE Registry
Retrospective 1,538 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing only HCQ associated with reduced mortality. Authors analyze mortality amongst those that were alive at day 7 to avoid survival time bias due to drug recording requiring a minimum..
Late Bosaeed et al., SSRN (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓3.7%, p=0.91 Favipiravir and Hydroxychloroquine Combination Therapy in Patients with Moderate to Severe COVID-19 (FACCT): An Open-Label, Multicentre, Randomised, Controlled Trial
RCT 254 very late stage (93% on oxygen, 17% in ICU at baseline) hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia not showing significant differences with HCQ+favipiravir treatment. Only SaO2 < 94% patients were eligible, however the actual SaO2 of e..
Review Kory et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001377 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis) review Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19
Review of ivermectin trials and epidemiological data, concluding that ivermectin is effective for prophylaxis and treatment, and should be globally and systematically deployed in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
Late Aghajani et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27053 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓18.6%, p=0.49 Decreased In-Hospital Mortality Associated with Aspirin Administration in Hospitalized Patients Due to Severe COVID-19
Retrospective 991 hospitalized patients in Iran focusing on aspirin use but also showing results for HCQ, remdesivir, and favipiravir.
Early Loucera et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.27.21255937 (Preprint) death, ↓71.9%, p<0.0001 Real world evidence of calcifediol use and mortality rate of COVID-19 hospitalized in a large cohort of 16,401 Andalusian patients
Retrospective 16,401 hospitalized patients in Spain showing a significant reduction in mortality associated with the prescription of vitamin D, especially calcifediol, within 15-30 days prior to hospitalization.
Late Kokturk et al., Respiratory Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2021.106433 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↑3.8%, p=0.97 The predictors of COVID-19 mortality in a nationwide cohort of Turkish patients
Retrospective 1,500 hospitalized late stage (median SaO2 87.7) patients in Turkey, showing no significant difference with HCQ treatment.
Late Réa-Neto et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-88509-9 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↑57.0%, p=0.20 An open-label randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine in severe COVID-19 patients
Early terminated very late stage (99% on oxygen, 81% in ICU, 18% on mechanical ventilation at baseline) RCT with 24 CQ patients, 29 HCQ, and 52 control patients, showing worse clinical outcomes with treatment. NCT04420247.
In Vitro Varese et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.27.441512 (Preprint) (In Vitro) in vitro Iota-carrageenan prevents the replication of SARS-CoV-2 on an in vitro respiratory epithelium model
In Vitro Calu-3 (human respiratory epithelial cell line) study showing that iota-carrageenan inhibits SARS-CoV-2.
Late Mohandas et al., (Peer Reviewed) death, ↑81.0%, p=0.007 Clinical review of COVID-19 patients presenting to a quaternary care private hospital in South India: A retrospective study
Retrospective 3,345 hospitalized patients in India, 11.5% treated with HCQ, showing unadjusted higher mortality with treatment. Confounding by indication and time based confounding (due to declining use over the period when overall treatm..
Levels Al-Daghri et al., Journal of Translational Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12967-021-02838-x (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D status of Arab Gulf residents screened for SARS-CoV-2 and its association with COVID-19 infection: a multi-centre case–control study
Case control study with 220 adults showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in PCR+ patients.
Late Toya et al., SSRN (Preprint) A Cross-Country Analysis of the Determinants of COVID-19 Fatalities
Country based analysis finding lower mortality with the use of HCQ.
We aim to cover the most promising early treatments for COVID-19. We use pre-specified effect extraction criteria that prioritizes more serious outcomes, for details see methods. For specific outcomes and different treatment stages see the individual pages. Not all treatments are covered here, effectiveness has been reported for many other treatments in studies. Of the 614 studies, 457 present results comparing with a control group, 405 are treatment studies, and 52 analyze outcomes based on serum levels.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary; multiple approaches are required to protect all people from all existing and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
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