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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 studies   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Antiandrogens (meta) Metformin (meta)
Aspirin (meta) Molnupiravir (meta)
Bamlanivimab (meta) Nigella Sativa (meta)
Bromhexine (meta) Nitazoxanide (meta)
Budesonide (meta) Paxlovid (meta)
Casirivimab/i.. (meta) Povidone-Iod.. (meta)
Colchicine (meta) Probiotics (meta)
Conv. Plasma (meta) Proxalutamide (meta)
Curcumin (meta) Quercetin (meta)
Favipiravir (meta) Remdesivir (meta)
Fluvoxamine (meta) Sotrovimab (meta)
Hydroxychloro.. (meta) Vitamin A (meta)
Iota-carragee.. (meta) Vitamin C (meta)
Ivermectin (meta) Vitamin D (meta)
Melatonin (meta) Zinc (meta)

Other Treatments Global Adoption
COVID-19 early treatment: real-time analysis of 1,160 studies
Analysis of 30 COVID-19 early treatments, and database of 231 other potential treatments. 67 countries have approved early treatments. Treatments do not replace vaccines and other measures. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all variants. Denying efficacy increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Paxlovid 95% 0.05 [0.00-0.81] 1 $700 1,219 very few trials/events Cost Studies Patients Improvement, RR [CI] Proxalutamide 84% 0.16 [0.12-0.22] 3 n/a 1,090 few trials/events Iota-carragee.. 80% 0.20 [0.04-0.89] 1 $1 394 very few trials/events Casirivimab/i.. 74% 0.26 [0.12-0.57] 9 $2,100 35,238 intravenous or injection Nigella Sativa 67% 0.33 [0.21-0.52] 4 $5 1,291 few trials/events Ivermectin 67% 0.33 [0.27-0.42] 67 $1 49,516 Sotrovimab 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 1 $2,100 583 intravenous Bamlanivimab 65% 0.35 [0.19-0.64] 9 $1,250 19,400 high variant dependence Melatonin 64% 0.36 [0.22-0.58] 11 $1 13,517 Povidone-Iod.. 60% 0.40 [0.25-0.65] 9 $1 2,256 Curcumin 59% 0.41 [0.24-0.70] 9 $5 867 few trials/events Antiandrogens 59% 0.41 [0.17-0.99] 6 $5 523 Quercetin 56% 0.44 [0.17-1.13] 5 $5 936 few trials/events Vitamin A 55% 0.45 [0.20-1.02] 5 $2 15,863 few trials/events Molnupiravir 55% 0.45 [0.24-0.85] 5 $700 2,724 Nitazoxanide 55% 0.45 [0.15-1.35] 6 $4 1,464 Zinc 48% 0.52 [0.41-0.66] 20 $1 50,281 Vitamin D 45% 0.55 [0.47-0.63] 53 $1 66,371 Budesonide 45% 0.55 [0.31-0.98] 3 $4 8,751 few trials/events Bromhexine 45% 0.55 [0.40-0.77] 5 $5 291 few trials/events Fluvoxamine 38% 0.62 [0.42-0.93] 5 $4 2,052 Favipiravir 34% 0.66 [0.52-0.85] 18 $20 4,288 Colchicine 31% 0.69 [0.54-0.88] 12 $1 17,762 Hydroxychloro.. 25% 0.75 [0.70-0.79] 298 $1 413,756 Probiotics 21% 0.79 [0.69-0.91] 13 $5 16,948 Aspirin 20% 0.80 [0.70-0.92] 23 $1 80,752 Remdesivir 19% 0.81 [0.73-0.89] 24 $3,120 97,505 Metformin 14% 0.86 [0.78-0.96] 11 $10 25,758 Vitamin C 11% 0.89 [0.78-1.02] 25 $1 30,398 Conv. Plasma -1% 1.01 [0.90-1.13] 13 $5,000 14,426 intravenous All studies combined (pooled effects, all stages) c19early.com Nov 26, 2021 Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of all studies combined (pooled effects, all stages). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages and outcomes depend on the distribution of stages and outcomes tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage and outcome analyses. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Paxlovid 95% 0.05 [0.00-0.81] 1 $700 1,219 very few trials/events Cost Studies Patients Improvement, RR [CI] Fluvoxamine 89% 0.11 [0.01-0.85] 2 $4 277 very few trials/events Nigella Sativa 84% 0.16 [0.05-0.48] 3 $5 915 few trials/events Budesonide 82% 0.18 [0.04-0.79] 1 $4 146 very few trials/events Vitamin D 81% 0.19 [0.10-0.35] 6 $1 912 few trials/events Bromhexine 79% 0.21 [0.06-0.72] 2 $5 96 very few trials/events Vitamin A 79% 0.21 [0.07-0.61] 2 $2 240 very few trials/events Quercetin 79% 0.21 [0.02-1.82] 2 $5 194 very few trials/events Bamlanivimab 79% 0.21 [0.11-0.41] 6 $1,250 17,653 high variant dependence Melatonin 78% 0.22 [0.06-0.75] 2 $1 91 very few trials/events Zinc 74% 0.26 [0.03-2.33] 3 $1 982 very few trials/events Proxalutamide 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.39] 2 n/a 445 very few trials/events Curcumin 71% 0.29 [0.11-0.74] 6 $5 707 few trials/events Povidone-Iod.. 71% 0.29 [0.16-0.54] 7 $1 878 few trials/events Antiandrogens 68% 0.32 [0.17-0.59] 2 $5 357 very few trials/events Casirivimab/i.. 68% 0.32 [0.16-0.67] 5 $2,100 22,392 intravenous or injection Ivermectin 67% 0.33 [0.24-0.47] 29 $1 27,658 Sotrovimab 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 1 $2,100 583 intravenous Hydroxychloro.. 64% 0.36 [0.28-0.46] 33 $1 54,693 Molnupiravir 55% 0.45 [0.24-0.85] 5 $700 2,724 Favipiravir 51% 0.49 [0.31-0.78] 4 $20 467 very few trials/events Nitazoxanide 49% 0.51 [0.13-1.95] 5 $4 1,414 few trials/events Vitamin C 43% 0.57 [0.07-4.78] 2 $1 208 very few trials/events Probiotics 34% 0.66 [0.55-0.80] 2 $5 323 few trials/events Metformin -15% 1.15 [0.73-1.83] 1 $10 423 very few trials/events Conv. Plasma -93% 1.93 [0.47-7.87] 3 $5,000 716 intravenous Early treatment studies (pooled effects) c19early.com Nov 26, 2021 Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment studies (pooled effects). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all outcomes are affected by the distribution of outcomes tested, please see detail pages for specific outcome analysis. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Paxlovid 95% 0.05 [0.00-0.81] 1 $700 1,219 very few trials/events Cost Studies Patients Improvement, RR [CI] Antiandrogens 95% 0.05 [0.00-2062] 1 $5 118 very few trials/events Povidone-Iod.. 88% 0.12 [0.03-0.50] 1 $1 606 very few trials/events Nigella Sativa 87% 0.13 [0.04-0.49] 2 $5 732 few trials/events Bromhexine 87% 0.13 [0.01-1.23] 2 $5 178 very few trials/events Molnupiravir 86% 0.14 [0.02-0.78] 2 $700 1,610 very few trials/events Proxalutamide 84% 0.16 [0.12-0.22] 3 n/a 1,090 few trials/events Melatonin 79% 0.21 [0.08-0.56] 4 $1 1,650 Bamlanivimab 71% 0.29 [0.08-1.01] 6 $1,250 17,830 high variant dependence Curcumin 70% 0.30 [0.14-0.64] 4 $5 434 Casirivimab/i.. 68% 0.32 [0.08-1.30] 4 $2,100 29,298 intravenous or injection Sotrovimab 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 1 $2,100 583 intravenous Nitazoxanide 60% 0.40 [0.10-1.58] 3 $4 923 very few trials/events Probiotics 59% 0.41 [0.23-0.72] 4 $5 539 few trials/events Ivermectin 58% 0.42 [0.31-0.57] 28 $1 36,773 Vitamin D 50% 0.50 [0.38-0.66] 31 $1 12,599 Quercetin 46% 0.54 [0.12-2.40] 3 $5 623 very few trials/events Vitamin A 42% 0.58 [0.07-4.59] 2 $2 207 few trials/events Colchicine 40% 0.60 [0.42-0.86] 10 $1 17,373 Budesonide 39% 0.61 [0.22-1.67] 1 $4 1,586 very few trials/events Zinc 39% 0.61 [0.49-0.78] 10 $1 10,416 Fluvoxamine 36% 0.64 [0.47-0.86] 3 $4 1,775 few trials/events Hydroxychloro.. 22% 0.78 [0.73-0.83] 184 $1 291,871 Vitamin C 20% 0.80 [0.66-0.98] 17 $1 14,205 Remdesivir 19% 0.81 [0.73-0.89] 23 $3,120 97,363 Metformin 19% 0.81 [0.73-0.90] 8 $10 7,303 Aspirin 17% 0.83 [0.71-0.96] 20 $1 70,208 Conv. Plasma -1% 1.01 [0.90-1.13] 13 $5,000 14,426 intravenous Favipiravir -8% 1.08 [0.73-1.59] 7 $20 2,998 All mortality results (all stages) c19early.com Nov 26, 2021 Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of all mortality results (all stages). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <25 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages depend on the distribution of stages tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage analyses. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Paxlovid 95% 0.05 [0.00-0.81] 1 $700 1,219 very few trials/events Cost Studies Patients Improvement, RR [CI] Bromhexine 91% 0.09 [0.01-1.59] 1 $5 78 very few trials/events Povidone-Iod.. 88% 0.12 [0.03-0.50] 1 $1 606 very few trials/events Nigella Sativa 87% 0.13 [0.04-0.49] 2 $5 732 few trials/events Molnupiravir 86% 0.14 [0.02-0.78] 2 $700 1,610 very few trials/events Bamlanivimab 86% 0.14 [0.04-0.50] 4 $1,250 17,048 high variant dependence Vitamin A 86% 0.14 [0.03-0.61] 1 $2 140 very few trials/events Casirivimab/i.. 84% 0.16 [0.03-0.95] 3 $2,100 19,513 intravenous or injection Curcumin 84% 0.16 [0.04-0.61] 2 $5 314 few trials/events Zinc 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.47] 1 $1 518 very few trials/events Quercetin 79% 0.21 [0.02-1.82] 2 $5 194 very few trials/events Vitamin D 79% 0.21 [0.12-0.39] 4 $1 514 few trials/events Hydroxychloro.. 75% 0.25 [0.16-0.40] 13 $1 50,628 Proxalutamide 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.39] 2 n/a 445 very few trials/events Sotrovimab 67% 0.33 [0.01-8.16] 1 $2,100 583 intravenous Ivermectin 52% 0.48 [0.32-0.72] 10 $1 25,482 Nitazoxanide 41% 0.59 [0.02-13.8] 2 $4 873 very few trials/events Conv. Plasma -93% 1.93 [0.47-7.87] 3 $5,000 716 intravenous Vitamin C -204% 3.04 [0.13-72.9] 1 $1 98 very few trials/events Early treatment mortality results c19early.com Nov 26, 2021 Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment mortality results. Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <25 control events are shown in grey. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
Treatment
Improvement
  (early)
Studies
  (early)
BUBudesonide 82% 1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CICasirivimab/im.. 68% 5
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IVMIvermectin 67% 29
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SSotrovimab 67% 1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(H)CQHydroxychloro.. 64% 33
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
FPVFavipiravir 51% 4
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RDRemdesivir - 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Early treatments approved by >2 countries. 67 countries have officially approved treatments. Details.
Recent studies (see the individual treatment pages for all studies):

Nov 26
Early Merck News Release (News)
death, ↓89.0%, p=0.01
Merck and Ridgeback Biotherapeutics Provide Update on Results from MOVe-OUT Study of Molnupiravir, an Investigational Oral Antiviral Medicine, in At Risk Adults With Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19
Details   News release reporting results of the MOVe-OUT trial, showing significantly lower risk of hospitalization or death. In subgroup analysis efficacy was much lower with the delta variant. NCT04575597. Discussion of concerns with this trial ..
Nov 24
Early Holubar et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.22.21266690 (Preprint)
hosp., ↓89.0%, p=0.06
Favipiravir for treatment of outpatients with asymptomatic or uncomplicated COVID-19: a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial
Details   Small RCT 116 mITT patients in the USA, 59 treated with favipiravir, showing no significant differences with treatment.
Nov 23
Late Ozer et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27469 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓75.0%, p=0.09
Effectiveness and Safety of Ivermectin in COVID‐19 Patients: A Prospective Study at A Safety‐Net Hospital
Details   Small prospective PSM study in the USA, showing 75% lower mortality with ivermectin treatment, without reaching statistical significance, significantly shorter ventilation and ICU time, and longer hospitalization time. Authors leave the ..
Nov 19
In Vitro Tandel et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.18.469078 (Preprint) (In Vitro)
in vitro
Metformin Suppresses SARS-CoV-2 in Cell Culture
Details   In Vitro study showing metformin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in Caco2 cells. Metformin reduced viral titers by nearly 99%, and by about 90% when cells were treated prior to infection.
Nov 19
Late Chuah et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciab962 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑1154.0%, p=0.08
Efficacy of Early Treatment with Favipiravir on Disease Progression among High Risk COVID-19 Patients: A Randomized, Open-Label Clinical Trial
Details   RCT 500 hospitalized patients in Malaysia, showing no significant differences with favipiravir treatment.
Nov 18
Late RECOVERY Collaborative Group, The Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01825-0 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓4.0%, p=0.35
Aspirin in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial
Details   RCT 14,892 late stage patients, 7,351 treated with aspirin, showing slightly improved discharge and hospitalization time, and no significant difference for mortality. Results are limited due to low dose (150mg daily), late treatment (9 d..
Nov 17
PrEP Samajdar et al., Journal of the Association of Physicians India, 69:11 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓74.5%, p<0.0001
Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine for Chemo-Prophylaxis of COVID-19: A Questionnaire Survey of Perception and Prescribing Practice of Physicians vis-a-vis Outcomes
Details   Physician survey in India with 164 ivermectin prophylaxis, 129 HCQ prophylaxis, and 81 control patients, showing significantly lower COVID-19 cases with treatment. Details of the treatment and control groups and the definition of cases ar..
Nov 16
In Vitro Marín-Palma et al., Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules26226900 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
in vitro
Curcumin Inhibits In Vitro SARS-CoV-2 Infection In Vero E6 Cells through Multiple Antiviral Mechanisms
Details   In Vitro study showing antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Inhibition was seen with Vero E6 cells pre-infection and post-infection, and with D614G and the delta variant. The anti-inflammatory e..
Nov 16
PrEP Isa et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.10.21265889 (Preprint)
symp. case, ↓92.6%, p=0.002
Repeat Subcutaneous Administration of REGEN-COV® in Adults is Well-Tolerated and Prevents the Occurrence of COVID-19
Details   RCT 969 patients, 729 treated with monthly subcutaneous casirivimab/imdevimab, showing significantly lower risk of COVID-19 with treatment. There were no grade 3 injection site reactions or hypersensitivity reactions. Slightly more TEAEs ..
Nov 15
PrEP Oskotsky et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.33090 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑57.9%, p=0.62
Mortality Risk Among Patients With COVID-19 Prescribed Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressants
Details   Retrospective database analysis of 83,584 patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with existing fluoxetine use in PSM analysis. There were 11 fluvoxamine patients, showing non-statistically significant higher mortality.
Nov 14
In Vitro Bahun et al., Food Chemistry, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131594 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
in vitro
Inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro main protease by plant polyphenols
Details   In Silico and In Vitro study of plant polyphenols identifying quercetin, curcumin, ellagic acid, epigallocatechin gallate and resveratrol as SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors with IC50 between 11.8µM and 23.4µM. Real-time binding was analyzed..
Nov 12
Levels Sacristán et al., Transplantation Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.08.060 (Peer Reviewed) Risk of severe COVID-19 infection in kidney transplant recipients
Details   Retrospective 63 COVID+ kidney transplant recipients, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels before infection in patients requiring ICU admission.
Nov 12
Levels Gönen et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13114047 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓65.8%, p=0.62
Rapid and Effective Vitamin D Supplementation May Present Better Clinical Outcomes in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Patients by Altering Serum INOS1, IL1B, IFNg, Cathelicidin-LL37, and ICAM1
Details   Retrospective 867 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Turkey, showing worse outcomes with vitamin D deficiency (without statistical significance); followed by a prospective study of 210 patients with vitamin D supplementation for those that..
Nov 10
Levels Asghar et al., Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., doi:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0577 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓53.1%, p=0.05
Evaluation of Vitamin-D Status and Its Association with Clinical Outcomes Among COVID-19 Patients in Pakistan
Details   Retrospective 91 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with mortality in multivariate Cox regression.
Nov 9
Late Shenoy et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.08.21265884 (Preprint)
death, ↑29.5%, p=0.54
Favipiravir In Adults with Moderate to Severe COVID-19: A Phase 3 Multicentre, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Details   Late stage RCT with 353 hospitalized patients, showing no significant differences with favipiravir treatment overall, however a trend towards benefit was seen within patients treated relatively early, including a statistically significant..
Nov 9
Late Stone et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1048271/v1 (Preprint) Rapid increase of SpO2 on room air for 34 severe COVID-19 patients after ivermectin-based combination treatment: 55-62% normalization within 12-24 hours
Details   Retrospective severe COVID-19 patients in Zimbabwe treated with ivermectin, doxycycline, and zinc. For 34 with SpO2 tracking, there was rapid improvement in SpO2, with 55% recovery towards SpO2=97 within 12 hours. For all 92 severe cases,..
Nov 8
Late Tehrani et al., Urology Journal, doi:10.22037/uj.v18i.6863 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓87.1%, p=0.13
An investigation into the Effects of Intravenous Vitamin C on Pulmonary CT Findings and Clinical Outcomes of Patients with COVID 19 Pneumonia A Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   RCT 54 late stage patients, 18 treated with IV vitamin C (2g every 6h for 5 days), showing significant relative improvements in oxygen saturation and respiratory rate.
Nov 8
PEP Regeneron Press Release (News)
hosp., ↓92.3%, p=0.03
New phase 3 analyses show that a single dose of REGEN-COV® (casirivimab and imdevimab) provides long-term protection against COVID-19
Details   Long-term results for PEP RCT NCT04452318, with 841 baseline seronegative casirivimab/imdevimab patients and 842 placebo patients, showing significantly lower cases with treatment.
Nov 6
Review Goldstein, L., TrialSite News (Review) (News)
news
Molnupiravir: mutagenic, carcinogenic, authorized in the UK
Details   Discussion of concerns with molnupiravir and the MOVe-OUT trial. Author notes that results showing bone marrow toxicity in dogs were mentioned in this preprint [1], but removed from the journal version [2]. Some additional details were pr..
Nov 5
Early Chechter et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.05.21265569 (Preprint)
hosp., ↓94.7%, p=0.004
Evaluation of patients treated by telemedicine in the COVID-19 pandemic by a private clinic in Sao Paulo, Brazil: A non-randomized clinical trial preliminary study
Details   Prospective study of 187 telemedicine patients in Brazil. 74 presenting with moderate symptoms were offered treatment with HCQ+AZ, 12 did not accept HCQ (taking AZ only), forming a control group. There was lower hospitalization and improv..
Nov 5
Animal Abdelnabi et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.04.467077 (Preprint)
animal study
The oral protease inhibitor (PF-07321332) protects Syrian hamsters against infection with SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern
Details   In Vitro and hamster study showing paxlovid component PF-07321332 effective against four variants of concern, inibits replication of the alpha variant in primary human airway epithelial cells, protected Syrian hamsters against intranasal ..
Nov 5
Early Pfizer Press Release (News)
death, ↓95.2%, p=0.002
Pfizer's novel COVID-19 oral antiviral treatment candidate reduced risk of hospitalization or death by 89% in interim analysis of phase 2/3 EPIC-HR study
Details   Interim analysis of EPIC-HR, 607 higher risk patients treated with paxlovid (PF-07321332 + ritonavir) and 612 control patients, showing significantly lower mortality and hospitalization with treatment.
Nov 3
Early Rubin et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofab546 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓97.0%, p<0.01
Bamlanivimab efficacy in older and high BMI outpatients with Covid-19 selected for treatment in a lottery-based allocation process
Details   Retrospective database analysis of 1257 PCR+ outpatients with age ≥65, BMI≥35, 191 receiving bamlanivimab via lottery. Authors note that the alpha variant was most common during the study period, and that efficacy against other variants c..
Nov 3
Levels Gallelli et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13113932 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D Serum Levels in Subjects Tested for SARS-CoV-2: What Are the Differences among Acute, Healed, and Negative COVID-19 Patients? A Multicenter Real-Practice Study
Details   Analysis of 117 patients in Italy, showing COVID-19 patients had significantly lower vitamin D levels than control patients.
Nov 3
Late Malaysia Ministry of Health (News)
death, ↓69.1%, p=0.09
Kenyataan Akhbar KPK 3 November 2021 – Hasil Dapatan Kajian Keberkesanan Rawatan Ivermectin Untuk Pesakit COVID-19 Berisiko Tinggi (I-TECH Study)
Details   RCT 490 hospitalized patients in Malaysia, showing no significant differences. There was only 13 deaths - 3 for ivermectin and 10 for control. Minimal details are available currently. Group sizes are not provided (241/249 are the closest ..
Nov 2
Levels Atanasovska et al., Redox Report, doi:10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓40.7%, p=0.68
Vitamin D levels and oxidative stress markers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 33 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in North Macedonia, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for severe vs. moderate cases. Oxidative stress was also higher for vitamin D insufficient patients.
Nov 2
Late Sarhan et al., Journal of Infection and Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.10.024 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓25.7%, p=0.39
Efficacy of the early treatment with tocilizumab-hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab-remdesivir in severe COVID-19 Patients
Details   Small 108 patient RCT comparing HCQ vs. remdesivir in very late stage treatment. All patients received tocilizumab. There were significant unadjusted baseline differences in ventilation and ICU admission. NCT04779047. REC-H-PhBSU-21011.
Nov 2
N/A Kaleta et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-995033/v1 (Preprint) Antibody escape and global spread of SARS-CoV-2 lineage A.27
Details   Anaysis of antibody escape showing variant A.27 completely escaped neutralization with LY-COV555 and partially with REGN10987. B.1.617.2 escaped these antibodies in a similar manner, suggesting that L452R facilitates the escape. Authors n..
Nov 1
Late Calusic et al., British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, doi:10.1111/bcp.15126 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓42.0%, p=0.03
Safety and efficacy of fluvoxamine in COVID-19 ICU patients: an open label, prospective cohort trial with matched controls
Details   Prospective PSM study of 51 COVID-19 ICU patients in Croatia and 51 matched controls, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment.
Nov 1
Late Zarabanda et al., Laryngoscope, doi:10.1002/lary.29935 (Peer Reviewed)
no recov., ↑26.9%, p=1.00
The Effect of Povidone-Iodine Nasal Spray on COVID-19 Nasopharyngeal Viral Load in Patients: A Randomized Control Trial
Details   Very late treatment (7 days from onset) RCT comparing 11 & 13 PVP-I (0.5% and 2%), and 11 saline spray patients in the USA, showing no significant differences. There was no control group (saline is likely not a placebo, showing efficacy i..
Nov 1
Late Damayanti et al., Kesmas: National Public Health Journal, doi:10.21109/kesmas.v16i4.5433 (Peer Reviewed)
no recov., ↓54.5%, p=0.03
The Effectiveness and Safety of Favipiravir in COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients in Bali, Indonesia
Details   Retrospective 192 hospitalized patients in Indonesia, 96 patients treated with favipiravir, showing improved recovery with treatment. Only the abstract is currently available.
Oct 29
Early Schiaroli et al., Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases, doi:10.4084/MJHID.2021.061 (Peer Reviewed) Early Treatment with BamlanivimabAlone does not Prevent COVID-19 Hospitalization and Its Post-Acute Sequelae. A Real Experience in Umbria, Italy
Details   Retrospective 39 patients treated with bamlanivimab in Italy, showing results far below expectations based on the BLAZE1 trial. Authors note that most patients had the alpha variant which does not have the E484K and L452R mutations known ..
Oct 28
PEP Verma et al., Indian Journal of Community Health, 33:3 (Peer Reviewed) Assessing Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices towards Ivermectin Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for COVID-19 among Health Care Workers
Details   Survey of 306 healthcare workers involved in the medication of COVID-19 patients in India. 71% indicated that ivermectin had a protective effect for COVID-19.
Oct 27
Early Baker et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.10.26.21265512 (Preprint) Dampening of the respiratory cytokine storm is promoted by inhaled budesonide in patients with early COVID-19
Details   Analysis of inflammatory mediators in the nasal mucosa of patients in the STOIC1 trial and a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 negative controls, showing that budesonide treatment decreased IL-33 and IFN-γ, implying a reduction in epithelial damage an..
We aim to cover the most promising early treatments for COVID-19. We use pre-specified effect extraction criteria that prioritizes more serious outcomes, for details see methods. For specific outcomes and different treatment stages see the individual pages. Not all treatments are covered here, effectiveness has been reported for many other treatments in studies. Of the 1,160 studies, 772 present results comparing with a control group, 683 are treatment studies, and 89 analyze outcomes based on serum levels. There are 17 animal studies, 40 in silico studies, 57 in vitro studies, and 58 meta analyses.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
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