Aspirin
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Colchicine
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Favipiravir
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Hydroxychloro..
Iota-carragee..
Ivermectin
Melatonin
Molnupiravir
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Povidone-Iod..
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Quercetin
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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 studies   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Aspirin Molnupiravir
Bamlanivimab Nigella Sativa
Bromhexine Nitazoxanide
Budesonide Povidone-Iod..
Casirivimab/i.. Probiotics
Colchicine Proxalutamide
Conv. Plasma Quercetin
Curcumin Remdesivir
Favipiravir Sotrovimab
Fluvoxamine Vitamin A
Hydroxychloro.. Vitamin C
Iota-carragee.. Vitamin D
Ivermectin Zinc
Melatonin

Other Adoption
COVID-19 early treatment: real-time analysis of 975 studies
COVID-19 early treatment analysis. Treatments do not replace vaccines and other measures. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all variants. Denying efficacy increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage.
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Proxalutamide86%0.14 [0.10-0.20]4n/a1,327few trials/eventsCostStudiesPatientsImprovement, RR [CI]Iota-carragee..80%0.20 [0.04-0.91]1$1394very few trials/eventsMolnupiravir77%0.23 [0.01-5.69]1$256202very few trials/eventsQuercetin72%0.28 [0.07-1.06]4$5736very few trials/eventsPovidone-Iod..71%0.29 [0.16-0.54]7$12,161Nigella Sativa67%0.33 [0.21-0.52]4$51,291few trials/eventsIvermectin67%0.33 [0.26-0.42]64$126,509Sotrovimab67%0.33 [0.01-8.16]1$2,100583very few trials/eventsCasirivimab/i..66%0.34 [0.15-0.76]7$2,10022,925Fluvoxamine63%0.37 [0.09-1.47]3$41,749few trials/eventsMelatonin60%0.40 [0.25-0.65]9$113,299Curcumin59%0.41 [0.20-0.82]5$5481few trials/eventsBamlanivimab59%0.41 [0.23-0.74]7$1,2509,136Vitamin A55%0.45 [0.18-1.10]4$2636few trials/eventsNitazoxanide55%0.45 [0.15-1.35]6$41,464Zinc51%0.49 [0.39-0.62]17$135,001Budesonide45%0.55 [0.31-0.98]3$48,751few trials/eventsBromhexine45%0.55 [0.40-0.77]5$5291few trials/eventsVitamin D44%0.56 [0.49-0.65]37$147,568Favipiravir32%0.68 [0.54-0.86]13$202,988Colchicine31%0.69 [0.54-0.88]12$117,762Hydroxychloro..25%0.75 [0.70-0.79]289$1412,106Aspirin25%0.75 [0.62-0.90]14$151,783Probiotics21%0.79 [0.67-0.93]8$51,264Remdesivir21%0.79 [0.70-0.90]23$3,12039,795Vitamin C14%0.86 [0.76-0.98]21$114,757Conv. Plasma-1%1.01 [0.90-1.13]13$5,00014,426All studies combined (pooled effects, all stages)c19early.com Sep 26, 2021Favors treatmentFavors control
Random effects meta-analysis of all studies combined (pooled effects, all stages). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages and outcomes depend on the distribution of stages and outcomes tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage and outcome analyses. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Proxalutamide91%0.09 [0.04-0.19]3n/a682few trials/eventsCostStudiesPatientsImprovement, RR [CI]Fluvoxamine89%0.11 [0.01-0.85]2$4277very few trials/eventsNigella Sativa84%0.16 [0.05-0.48]3$5915few trials/eventsBudesonide82%0.18 [0.04-0.79]1$4146very few trials/eventsPovidone-Iod..81%0.19 [0.10-0.37]6$1807few trials/eventsVitamin D80%0.20 [0.10-0.37]5$1898few trials/eventsBromhexine79%0.21 [0.06-0.72]2$596very few trials/eventsVitamin A79%0.21 [0.07-0.61]2$2240very few trials/eventsQuercetin79%0.21 [0.02-1.82]2$5194very few trials/eventsMolnupiravir77%0.23 [0.01-5.69]1$256202very few trials/eventsBamlanivimab76%0.24 [0.12-0.50]4$1,2507,389Zinc75%0.25 [0.04-1.71]3$1982very few trials/eventsMelatonin73%0.27 [0.07-1.05]1$131very few trials/eventsCurcumin72%0.28 [0.09-0.91]4$5441very few trials/eventsCasirivimab/i..69%0.31 [0.13-0.74]4$2,10011,226few trials/eventsIvermectin68%0.32 [0.22-0.48]28$15,326Sotrovimab67%0.33 [0.01-8.16]1$2,100583very few trials/eventsHydroxychloro..64%0.36 [0.29-0.46]32$154,621Nitazoxanide49%0.51 [0.13-1.95]5$41,414few trials/eventsFavipiravir48%0.52 [0.36-0.76]4$20410very few trials/eventsVitamin C46%0.54 [0.19-1.51]2$1208very few trials/eventsProbiotics34%0.66 [0.55-0.80]2$5323few trials/eventsConv. Plasma-93%1.93 [0.47-7.87]3$5,000716very few trials/eventsEarly treatment studies (pooled effects)c19early.com Sep 26, 2021Favors treatmentFavors control
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment studies (pooled effects). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all outcomes are affected by the distribution of outcomes tested, please see detail pages for specific outcome analysis. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Povidone-Iod..88%0.12 [0.03-0.50]1$1606very few trials/eventsCostStudiesPatientsImprovement, RR [CI]Nigella Sativa87%0.13 [0.04-0.49]2$5732few trials/eventsBromhexine87%0.13 [0.01-1.23]2$5178very few trials/eventsProxalutamide84%0.16 [0.12-0.22]3n/a1,090few trials/eventsMolnupiravir77%0.23 [0.01-5.69]1$256202very few trials/eventsCasirivimab/i..76%0.24 [0.03-2.14]3$2,10018,132few trials/eventsMelatonin74%0.26 [0.09-0.74]3$11,492few trials/eventsSotrovimab67%0.33 [0.01-8.16]1$2,100583very few trials/eventsProbiotics66%0.34 [0.18-0.64]2$5270few trials/eventsCurcumin65%0.35 [0.13-0.90]2$5180few trials/eventsNitazoxanide60%0.40 [0.10-1.58]3$4923very few trials/eventsIvermectin58%0.42 [0.30-0.59]25$113,911Vitamin D57%0.43 [0.30-0.62]22$19,958Bamlanivimab57%0.43 [0.11-1.68]4$1,2507,566Quercetin46%0.54 [0.12-2.40]3$5623very few trials/eventsVitamin A42%0.58 [0.07-4.59]2$2207few trials/eventsZinc41%0.59 [0.47-0.75]9$110,393Colchicine40%0.60 [0.42-0.86]10$117,373Budesonide39%0.61 [0.22-1.67]1$41,586very few trials/eventsFluvoxamine29%0.71 [0.38-1.30]1$41,472very few trials/eventsAspirin26%0.74 [0.62-0.89]13$151,716Hydroxychloro..22%0.78 [0.73-0.84]179$1290,603Remdesivir21%0.79 [0.69-0.90]22$3,12039,653Vitamin C18%0.82 [0.67-1.01]14$113,924Favipiravir8%0.92 [0.60-1.41]5$202,119Conv. Plasma-1%1.01 [0.90-1.13]13$5,00014,426All mortality results (all stages)c19early.com Sep 26, 2021Favors treatmentFavors control
Random effects meta-analysis of all mortality results (all stages). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <25 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages depend on the distribution of stages tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage analyses. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Casirivimab/i..92%0.08 [0.00-1.53]2$2,1008,347few trials/eventsCostStudiesPatientsImprovement, RR [CI]Bromhexine91%0.09 [0.01-1.59]1$578very few trials/eventsPovidone-Iod..88%0.12 [0.03-0.50]1$1606very few trials/eventsNigella Sativa87%0.13 [0.04-0.49]2$5732few trials/eventsVitamin A86%0.14 [0.03-0.61]1$2140very few trials/eventsBamlanivimab85%0.15 [0.03-0.77]2$1,2506,784few trials/eventsCurcumin82%0.18 [0.04-0.79]1$5140very few trials/eventsZinc79%0.21 [0.03-1.47]1$1518very few trials/eventsQuercetin79%0.21 [0.02-1.82]2$5194very few trials/eventsVitamin D78%0.22 [0.12-0.43]3$1500few trials/eventsMolnupiravir77%0.23 [0.01-5.69]1$256202very few trials/eventsHydroxychloro..75%0.25 [0.16-0.40]13$150,628Proxalutamide73%0.27 [0.03-2.39]2n/a445very few trials/eventsSotrovimab67%0.33 [0.01-8.16]1$2,100583very few trials/eventsFavipiravir45%0.55 [0.05-5.81]1$2092very few trials/eventsNitazoxanide41%0.59 [0.02-13.8]2$4873very few trials/eventsIvermectin37%0.63 [0.38-1.04]8$13,050Conv. Plasma-93%1.93 [0.47-7.87]3$5,000716very few trials/eventsEarly treatment mortality resultsc19early.com Sep 26, 2021Favors treatmentFavors control
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment mortality results. Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <25 control events are shown in grey. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
Treatment
Improvement
  (early)
Studies
  (early)
BUBudesonide 82% 1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CICasirivimab/im.. 69% 4
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IVMIvermectin 68% 28
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SSotrovimab 67% 1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(H)CQHydroxychloro.. 64% 32
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
FPVFavipiravir 48% 4
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RDRemdesivir - 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Early treatments approved by >2 countries. 63 countries have officially approved treatments. Details.
Recent studies (see the individual treatment pages for all studies):

Sep 25
Meta Borsche et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.09.22.21263977 (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis COVID-19 mortality risk correlates inversely with vitamin D3 status, and a mortality rate close to zero could theoretically be achieved at 50 ng/ml 25(OH)D3: Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis
Details   Meta analysis of 8 studies with vitamin D levels measured pre-infection or on the day of hospital admission, showing a correlation between the levels and mortality. Authors recommend combining vaccination with vitamin D supplementation to..
Sep 23
Late Dorward et al., medRxiv, doi:2021.09.20.21263828 (Preprint) hosp./death, ↑29.8%, p=0.65 Colchicine for COVID-19 in adults in the community (PRINCIPLE): a randomised, controlled, adaptive platform trial
Details   Late treatment RCT with 156 colchicine patients in the UK, showing no significant differences. ISRCTN86534580.
Sep 22
Levels Laing et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103304 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓79.0%, p=0.01 Course and Survival of COVID-19 Patients with Comorbidities in Relation to the Trace Element Status at Hospital Admission
Details   Retrospective 79 hospitalized patients in Belgium, showing mortality associated with zinc and selenium deficiency.
Sep 22
Levels Marino-Ramirez et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.09.20.21263865 (Preprint) Vitamin D and socioeconomic deprivation mediate COVID-19 ethnic health disparities
Details   UK Biobank retrospective showing that vitamin supplements, including vitamin D, mediate the Asian disparity in COVID-19 susceptibility, and vitamin D levels mediate Asian and Black COVID-19 severity disparities. Authors conclude that the ..
Sep 15
Late Çivriz Bozdağ et al., Turk. J. Haematol., doi:10.4274/tjh.galenos.2021.2021.0287 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↑399.2%, p=0.003 Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of COVID-19 in Turkish Hematological Malignancy Patients
Details   Retrospective 340 patients with hematological malignancy in Turkey, showing higher mortality with HCQ treatment. Confounding by time is likely because more HCQ patients were earlier in time when overall treatment protocols were significan..
Sep 14
Late Alotaibi et al., International Journal of General Medicine, 2021:14 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓57.2%, p=0.05 Effectiveness and Safety of Favipiravir Compared to Hydroxychloroquine for Management of Covid-19: A Retrospective Study
Details   Retrospective hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia, showing lower mortality with favipiravir compared to HCQ, not quite reaching statistical significance. Authors do not indicate the factors behind which therapy was chosen. Confounding b..
Sep 14
Late Ader et al., Lancet Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00485-0 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓6.4%, p=0.77 Remdesivir plus standard of care versus standard of care alone for the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (DisCoVeRy): a phase 3, randomised, controlled, open-label trial
Details   RCT 857 hospitalized patients, showing no significant differences with remdesivir treatment. DISCOVERY trial. EudraCT2020-000936-23, NCT04315948.
Sep 14
PrEP Panda et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.09.13.21262971 (Preprint) hosp., ↓94.8%, p=0.61 Low dose hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis for COVID-19 - a prospective study
Details   Small prophylaxis trial with 29 low dose HCQ and 455 control healthcare workers in India, showing no statistically significant differences.
Sep 14
Early Accinelli et al., Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2021.102163 (Peer Reviewed) Hydroxychloroquine / azithromycin in COVID-19: The association between time to treatment and case fatality rate
Details   Retrospective 1,265 outpatients in Peru treated with HCQ+AZ showing mortality associated with treatment delay. Mortality was six times lower than the national average.
Sep 11
N/A Walker et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.09.10.21263376 (Preprint) An open label, adaptive, phase 1 trial of high-dose oral nitazoxanide in healthy volunteers: an antiviral candidate for SARS-CoV-2
Details   Phase I trial of high dose nitazoxanide, 1500mg twice daily, with 14 participants. Trreatment was safe and well tolerated. PBPK predictions were confirmed on day 1 but with underprediction at day 5. Median Cmin was above the in vitro targ..
Sep 9
In Vitro Pickard et al., PLOS Pathogens, doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1009840 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Discovery of re-purposed drugs that slow SARS-CoV-2 replication in human cells
Details   In Vitro studying identifying 35 compounds that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells and hepatocytes when treated prior to infection, and several compounds that slow replication when treated after infection: vitamin D, amodiaquine, atovaquone..
Sep 9
Early Sawanpanyalert et al., Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 52:4 (Peer Reviewed) progression, ↓68.0%, p=0.003 Assessment of outcomes following implementation of antiviral treatment guidelines for COVID-19 during the first wave in Thailand
Details   Retrospective 744 hospitalized patients in Thailand, showing lower risk of a poor outcome for favipiravir treatment within 4 days of symptom onset. Early treatment with CQ/HCQ and lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir also showed low..
Sep 9
PrEP Lee et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-72221/v1 (Preprint) cases, ↓32.6%, p=0.10 Association Between Inhaled Corticosteroid Use and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection: A Nationwide Population-based Study in South Korea
Details   Retrospective 44,968 patients in South Korea, 7,019 on inhaled corticosteroids, showing no statistically significant differences in COVID-19 cases.
Sep 9
Late Bégin et al., Nature Medicine, doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01488-2 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↑13.0%, p=0.33 Convalescent plasma for hospitalized patients with COVID-19: an open-label, randomized controlled trial
Details   RCT 940 hospitalized patients, 614 assigned to convalescent plasma, showing no significant differences. NCT04348656.
Sep 8
Late Elamir et al., Bone, doi:10.1016/j.bone.2021.116175 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓85.7%, p=0.23 A Randomized Pilot Study Using Calcitriol in Hospitalized Patients
Details   RCT 50 hospitalized patients in the USA, 25 treated with calcitriol, showing significantly improved oxygenation with treatment. Mortality, intubation, ICU admission, and hospitalization time also favored treatment, while not reaching stat..
Sep 7
Late Xia et al., Aging, doi:10.18632/aging.203503 (Peer Reviewed) High-dose vitamin C ameliorates cardiac injury in COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective cohort study
Details   Retrospective 113 severe and critical patients in China with cardiac injury, 51 treated with high dose vitamin C, showing treatment associated with improvement of myocardial injury.
Sep 6
Early Buonfrate et al., SSRN, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3918289 (Preprint) hosp., ↑600.0%, p=0.30 High Dose Ivermectin for the Early Treatment of COVID-19 (COVIER Study): A Randomised, Double-Blind, Multicentre, Phase II, Dose-Finding, Proof of Concept Clinical Trial
Details   Early terminated 89 patient RCT with 29 high dose and 32 very high dose ivermectin patients, showing dose dependent viral load reduction, although not reaching statistical significance due to early termination. Since most patients have lo..
Sep 4
PrEP Kim et al., Medicina, doi:10.3390/medicina57090931 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↑700.0%, p=0.03 Aspirin Is Related to Worse Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19
Details   Retrospective database analysis of 22,660 patients tested for COVID-19 in South Korea. There was no significant difference in cases according to aspirin use. Aspirin use before COVID-19 was related to an increased death rate and aspirin u..
Sep 3
Levels Jahromi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06617-3 (Peer Reviewed) The correlation between serum selenium, zinc, and COVID-19 severity: an observational study
Details   Prospective analysis of 84 patients in Iran, showing higher selenium and zinc levels associated with a decrease in serum CRP level. There was no statistically significant association between selenium/zinc levels and disease severity.
Sep 3
Early Okogbenin et al., Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, doi:10.4103/npmj.npmj_532_21 (Peer Reviewed) Clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 patients treated at thisday dome isolation and treatment centre, federal capital territory Abuja, Nigeria
Details   Retrospective 300 COVID-19 patients in Nigeria treated with ivermectin, zinc, vitamin C, and azithromycin, reporting no deaths. Authors conclude that early treatment is critical.
Sep 3
Late Al Harthi et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-872891/v1 (Preprint) death, ↓27.0%, p=0.03 Evaluation of low-dose aspirin use among COVID-19 critically ill patients: A Multicenter Propensity Score Matched Study
Details   Retrospective 1,033 critical condition patients, showing lower in-hospital mortality with aspirin in PSM analysis. Patients receiving aspirin also had a higher risk of significant bleeding, although not reaching statistical significance. ..
Sep 2
Meta Marik et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001443 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis) meta-analysis Ivermectin, A Reanalysis of the Data
Details   Updated meta analysis showing no significant change if Elgazzar et al. is excluded.
Sep 2
Meta Neil et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001450 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis) meta-analysis Bayesian Hypothesis Testing and Hierarchical Modeling of Ivermectin Effectiveness
Details   Updated Bayesian analysis of a subset of ivermectin trials showing that there is strong evidence to support a causal link between ivermectin and COVID-19 severity and mortality, and that the result is robust in sensitivity analysis, inclu..
Sep 1
PrEP Bagheri et al., Journal of Family & Reproductive Health, doi:10.18502/jfrh.v14i3.4668 (Peer Reviewed) progression, ↓60.4%, p=0.41 Supplement Usage Pattern in a Group of COVID- 19 Patients in Tehran
Details   Retrospective 510 patients in Iran, showing lower risk of severity with vitamin D (statistically significant) and zinc (not statistically significant) supplementation. IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1398.1063.
Sep 1
Late Soliman et al., Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare, doi:10.1177/20101058211041405 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓63.4%, p=0.21 Impact of Vitamin D Therapy on the Progress COVID-19: Six Weeks Follow-Up Study of Vitamin D Deficient Elderly Diabetes Patients
Details   Small RCT with 56 eldery diabetes patients hospitalized in Egypt, 40 treated with cholecalciferol, not showing significant differences.
Aug 31
Meta Ben-Eltriki et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis) meta-analysis Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Developing Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Details   Meta analysis of 24 observational studies with 3,637 participants, showing low vitamin D status associated with a higher risk of death and a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
Aug 30
Late Mousavi et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27312 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓66.7%, p=0.62 Melatonin effects on sleep quality and outcomes of COVID-19 patients: An open-label, randomized, controlled trial
Details   RCT 96 hospitalized patients in Iran, 48 treated with melatonin, showing improved sleep quality and SpO2 with treatment. 3mg oral melatonin daily. Authors recommend studies with a higher dose. IRCT20200411047030N1.
Aug 29
PrEP Chow et al., Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, doi:10.1111/jth.15517 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓19.0%, p<0.005 Association of Pre-Hospital Antiplatelet Therapy with Survival in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis
Details   PSM retrospective 6,781 hospitalized patients ≥50 years old in the USA who were on pre-hospital antiplatelet therapy (84% aspirin), and 10,566 matched controls, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Aug 29
Levels Karonova et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13093021 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓77.8%, p=0.006 Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 161 hospitalized patients in Russia, showing COVID-19 severity and mortality associated with vitamin D deficiency. Patients in this study may overlap with those in an earlier smaller study from some of the same authors.
Aug 27
Late Shinkai et al., Infectious Diseases and Therapy, doi:10.1007/s40121-021-00517-4 (Peer Reviewed) no recov., ↓37.1%, p=0.01 Efficacy and Safety of Favipiravir in Moderate COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients without Oxygen Therapy: A Randomized, Phase III Clinical Trial
Details   RCT 156 patients in Japan, 107 treated with favipiravir, showing significant improvement in a composite outcome defined as the time to improvement in temperature, SpO2, CT findings, and recovery to PCR-.
Aug 27
Levels Pecina et al., Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, doi:10.1177/21501327211041206 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓35.9%, p=0.73 Vitamin D Status and Severe COVID-19 Disease Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients
Details   Retrospective 92 hospitalized patients not showing significant differences in outcomes based on vitamin D status or supplementation.
Aug 26
Levels Golabi et al., Zenodo, doi:10.5281/zenodo.5266352 (Preprint) The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status with the Disease Onset and Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with COVID-19 and Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study
Details   Analysis of vitamin D and zinc levels in 53 PCR+ outpatients and 53 controls, showing lower zinc levels in COVID-19 patients, and increased risk of symptomatic cases with vitamin D deficiency. Currently only the abstract is available.
We aim to cover the most promising early treatments for COVID-19. We use pre-specified effect extraction criteria that prioritizes more serious outcomes, for details see methods. For specific outcomes and different treatment stages see the individual pages. Not all treatments are covered here, effectiveness has been reported for many other treatments in studies. Of the 975 studies, 664 present results comparing with a control group, 591 are treatment studies, and 73 analyze outcomes based on serum levels. There are 13 animal studies, 34 in silico studies, 49 in vitro studies, and 58 meta analyses.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
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