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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for N-acetylcysteine  COVID-19 treatment studies for N-acetylcys..  C19 studies: N-acetylcys..  N-acetylcys..   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
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Other Treatments Global Adoption
Outcomes in COVID-19 N-acetylcysteine studies
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 22% 14 24,440 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk Mortality 26% 10 23,978 Ventilation 8% 3 273 ICU admission 0% 4 1,174 Hospitalization 16% 6 735 Recovery 48% 4 1,343 Cases 26% 1 0 RCTs 15% 5 669 RCT mortality 10% 3 318 Peer-reviewed 24% 12 21,972 Prophylaxis 26% 1 0 Early 21% 2 416 Late 22% 11 24,024 N-acetylcysteine for COVID-19 c19early.com/na Aug 2022 FavorsN-acetylcysteine Favorscontrol after exclusions
0 0.5 1 1.5+ ALL STUDIES MORTALITY VENTILATION ICU ADMISSION HOSPITALIZATION RECOVERY CASES RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS RCT MORTALITY PEER-REVIEWED After Exclusions ALL STUDIES All Prophylaxis Early Late N-acetylcysteine for COVID-19 C19EARLY.COM/NA AUG 2022
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ignatova 20% 0.80 [0.64-1.00] hosp. time 56 (n) 55 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.043 Early treatment 21% 0.79 [0.63-0.99] 0/285 1/131 21% improvement de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] death 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gaynitdinova (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Pellegrini 52% 0.48 [0.33-0.70] death 138 (n) 726 (n) Pourhoseingholi 11% 0.89 [0.68-1.18] death 65/309 274/2,159 Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] death 12/47 14/45 Assimakopoulos 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.30] death 2/42 12/40 Avdeev 69% 0.31 [0.03-2.72] death 1/24 3/22 Faverio (PSW) -19% 1.19 [0.85-1.66] death 91/572 44/329 Ramadhan -135% 2.35 [0.33-16.9] death 11/75 1/16 Izquierdo 26% 0.74 [0.63-0.88] death 136/2,071 1,935/17,137 Delić (RCT) 10% 0.90 [0.63-1.30] death 21/39 31/52 Intubated patients Tau​2 = 0.06, I​2 = 73.5%, p = 0.019 Late treatment 22% 0.78 [0.63-0.96] 348/3,408 2,323/20,616 22% improvement Huh 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] cases population-based cohort Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Prophylaxis 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] 26% improvement All studies 22% 0.78 [0.68-0.90] 348/3,693 2,324/20,747 22% improvement 14 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 studies c19early.com/na Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.03, I​2 = 69.3%, p = 0.00056 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ignatova 20% 0.80 [0.64-1.00] hosp. time 56 (n) 55 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.043 Early treatment 21% 0.79 [0.63-0.99] 0/285 1/131 21% improvement de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] death 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gaynitdinova (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Pellegrini 52% 0.48 [0.33-0.70] death 138 (n) 726 (n) Pourhoseingholi 11% 0.89 [0.68-1.18] death 65/309 274/2,159 Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] death 12/47 14/45 Assimakopoulos 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.30] death 2/42 12/40 Avdeev 69% 0.31 [0.03-2.72] death 1/24 3/22 Faverio (PSW) -19% 1.19 [0.85-1.66] death 91/572 44/329 Delić (RCT) 10% 0.90 [0.63-1.30] death 21/39 31/52 Intubated patients Tau​2 = 0.10, I​2 = 77.2%, p = 0.039 Late treatment 25% 0.75 [0.58-0.99] 201/1,262 387/3,463 25% improvement Huh 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] cases population-based cohort Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Prophylaxis 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] 26% improvement All studies 22% 0.78 [0.67-0.92] 201/1,547 388/3,594 22% improvement 12 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 studies after exclusions c19early.com/na Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.04, I​2 = 73.0%, p = 0.0025 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Pellegrini 52% 0.48 [0.33-0.70] 138 (n) 726 (n) Pourhoseingholi 11% 0.89 [0.68-1.18] 65/309 274/2,159 Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] 12/47 14/45 Assimakopoulos 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.30] 2/42 12/40 Avdeev 69% 0.31 [0.03-2.72] 1/24 3/22 Faverio (PSW) -19% 1.19 [0.85-1.66] 91/572 44/329 Ramadhan -135% 2.35 [0.33-16.9] 11/75 1/16 Izquierdo 26% 0.74 [0.63-0.88] 136/2,071 1,935/17,137 Delić (RCT) 10% 0.90 [0.63-1.30] 21/39 31/52 Intubated patients Tau​2 = 0.12, I​2 = 75.6%, p = 0.044 Late treatment 26% 0.74 [0.55-0.99] 348/3,384 2,323/20,594 26% improvement All studies 26% 0.74 [0.55-0.99] 348/3,384 2,323/20,594 26% improvement 10 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 mortality results c19early.com/na Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.12, I​2 = 75.6%, p = 0.044 Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ de Alencar (DB RCT) -16% 1.16 [0.59-2.01] 16/67 14/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Taher (DB RCT) 14% 0.86 [0.53-1.40] 18/47 20/45 Avdeev 77% 0.23 [0.03-1.90] 1/24 4/22 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 10.9%, p = 0.7 Late treatment 8% 0.92 [0.60-1.40] 35/138 38/135 8% improvement All studies 8% 0.92 [0.60-1.40] 35/138 38/135 8% improvement 3 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19early.com/na Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 10.9%, p = 0.7 Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ de Alencar (DB RCT) 9% 0.91 [0.59-1.28] 29/67 32/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Taher (DB RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.44-1.47] 47 (n) 45 (n) Avdeev 77% 0.23 [0.03-1.90] 1/24 4/22 Faverio (PSW) -34% 1.34 [0.97-1.84] 107/572 46/329 Tau​2 = 0.05, I​2 = 45.5%, p = 0.99 Late treatment 0% 1.00 [0.70-1.42] 137/710 82/464 0% improvement All studies 0% 1.00 [0.70-1.42] 137/710 82/464 0% improvement 4 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 ICU results c19early.com/na Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.05, I​2 = 45.5%, p = 0.99 Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ignatova 20% 0.80 [0.64-1.00] hosp. time 56 (n) 55 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.043 Early treatment 21% 0.79 [0.63-0.99] 0/285 1/131 21% improvement de Alencar (DB RCT) -10% 1.10 [0.37-3.23] hosp. time 67 (n) 68 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gaynitdinova (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Taher (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.31-1.45] hosp. time 47 (n) 45 (n) Avdeev 15% 0.85 [0.75-0.96] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 15% 0.85 [0.78-0.91] 0/162 0/157 15% improvement All studies 16% 0.84 [0.78-0.90] 0/447 1/288 16% improvement 6 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 hospitalization results c19early.com/na Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.33 Early treatment 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] 0/229 1/76 80% improvement de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] death 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Pellegrini 52% 0.48 [0.33-0.70] death 138 (n) 726 (n) Pourhoseingholi 11% 0.89 [0.68-1.18] death 65/309 274/2,159 Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] death 12/47 14/45 Assimakopoulos 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.30] death 2/42 12/40 Avdeev 69% 0.31 [0.03-2.72] death 1/24 3/22 Faverio (PSW) -19% 1.19 [0.85-1.66] death 91/572 44/329 Ramadhan -135% 2.35 [0.33-16.9] death 11/75 1/16 Izquierdo 26% 0.74 [0.63-0.88] death 136/2,071 1,935/17,137 Delić (RCT) 10% 0.90 [0.63-1.30] death 21/39 31/52 Intubated patients Tau​2 = 0.12, I​2 = 75.6%, p = 0.044 Late treatment 26% 0.74 [0.55-0.99] 348/3,384 2,323/20,594 26% improvement All studies 27% 0.73 [0.55-0.98] 348/3,613 2,324/20,670 27% improvement 11 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 serious outcomes c19early.com/na Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.12, I​2 = 73.4%, p = 0.036 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 83% 0.17 [0.13-0.24] no recov. 229 (n) 75 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 83% 0.17 [0.13-0.24] 0/229 0/75 83% improvement Gaynitdinova (RCT) 51% 0.49 [0.32-0.75] Ct imp. 24 (n) 22 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Taher (DB RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.60-1.22] no recov. 25/47 28/45 Faverio (PSW) 1% 0.99 [0.81-1.20] no disch. 180/572 105/329 Tau​2 = 0.08, I​2 = 76.7%, p = 0.18 Late treatment 23% 0.77 [0.53-1.13] 205/643 133/396 23% improvement All studies 48% 0.52 [0.23-1.18] 205/872 133/471 48% improvement 4 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 recovery results c19early.com/na Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.68, I​2 = 96.5%, p = 0.12 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Huh 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] cases population-based cohort Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Prophylaxis 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] 26% improvement All studies 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] 26% improvement 1 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 case result c19early.com/na Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.33 Early treatment 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] 0/229 1/76 80% improvement de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] death 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gaynitdinova (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] death 12/47 14/45 Delić (RCT) 10% 0.90 [0.63-1.30] death 21/39 31/52 Intubated patients Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.00084 Late treatment 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.94] 42/177 54/187 15% improvement All studies 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] 42/406 55/263 15% improvement 5 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 Randomized Controlled Trials c19early.com/na Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.00076 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] 12/47 14/45 Delić (RCT) 10% 0.90 [0.63-1.30] 21/39 31/52 Intubated patients Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.5 Late treatment 10% 0.90 [0.67-1.21] 42/153 54/165 10% improvement All studies 10% 0.90 [0.67-1.21] 42/153 54/165 10% improvement 3 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 RCT mortality results c19early.com/na Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.5 Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ignatova 20% 0.80 [0.64-1.00] hosp. time 56 (n) 55 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.043 Early treatment 21% 0.79 [0.63-0.99] 0/285 1/131 21% improvement de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] death 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gaynitdinova (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Pellegrini 52% 0.48 [0.33-0.70] death 138 (n) 726 (n) Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] death 12/47 14/45 Assimakopoulos 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.30] death 2/42 12/40 Avdeev 69% 0.31 [0.03-2.72] death 1/24 3/22 Faverio (PSW) -19% 1.19 [0.85-1.66] death 91/572 44/329 Ramadhan -135% 2.35 [0.33-16.9] death 11/75 1/16 Izquierdo 26% 0.74 [0.63-0.88] death 136/2,071 1,935/17,137 Delić (RCT) 10% 0.90 [0.63-1.30] death 21/39 31/52 Intubated patients Tau​2 = 0.08, I​2 = 75.9%, p = 0.023 Late treatment 25% 0.75 [0.59-0.96] 283/3,099 2,049/18,457 25% improvement All studies 24% 0.76 [0.62-0.94] 283/3,384 2,050/18,588 24% improvement 12 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 peer reviewed trials c19early.com/na Aug 2022 Tau​2 = 0.06, I​2 = 71.1%, p = 0.0095 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Altay (DB RCT) 83% 0.17 [0.13-0.24] no recov. 229 (n) 75 (n) CT​1 Ignatova 20% 0.80 [0.64-1.00] hosp. time 56 (n) 55 (n) de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] death 9/67 9/68 de Alencar (DB RCT) -16% 1.16 [0.59-2.01] ventilation 16/67 14/68 de Alencar (DB RCT) 9% 0.91 [0.59-1.28] ICU 29/67 32/68 de Alencar (DB RCT) -12% 1.12 [0.77-1.65] ICU 67 (n) 68 (n) de Alencar (DB RCT) -10% 1.10 [0.37-3.23] hosp. time 67 (n) 68 (n) Gaynitdinova (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Gaynitdinova (RCT) 51% 0.49 [0.32-0.75] Ct imp. 24 (n) 22 (n) Pellegrini 52% 0.48 [0.33-0.70] death 138 (n) 726 (n) Pourhoseingholi 11% 0.89 [0.68-1.18] death 65/309 274/2,159 Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] death 12/47 14/45 Taher (DB RCT) 14% 0.86 [0.53-1.40] ventilation 18/47 20/45 Taher (DB RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.44-1.47] ICU 47 (n) 45 (n) Taher (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.31-1.45] hosp. time 47 (n) 45 (n) Taher (DB RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.60-1.22] no recov. 25/47 28/45 Assimakopoulos 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.30] death 2/42 12/40 Avdeev 69% 0.31 [0.03-2.72] death 1/24 3/22 Avdeev 77% 0.23 [0.03-1.90] ventilation 1/24 4/22 Avdeev 77% 0.23 [0.03-1.90] ICU 1/24 4/22 Avdeev 15% 0.85 [0.75-0.96] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Faverio (PSW) -19% 1.19 [0.85-1.66] death 91/572 44/329 Faverio (PSW) -34% 1.34 [0.97-1.84] ICU 107/572 46/329 Faverio (PSW) 1% 0.99 [0.81-1.20] no disch. 180/572 105/329 Ramadhan -135% 2.35 [0.33-16.9] death 11/75 1/16 Izquierdo 26% 0.74 [0.63-0.88] death 136/2,071 1,935/17,137 Delić (RCT) 10% 0.90 [0.63-1.30] death 21/39 31/52 Intubated patients Huh 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] cases population-based cohort N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 outcomes c19early.com/na Aug 2022 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases mortality, morbidity, collateral damage, and the risk of endemic status. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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