Antiandrogens
Aspirin
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Cannabidiol
Casirivimab/i..
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Diet
Ensovibep
Exercise
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Iota-carragee..
Ivermectin
Lactoferrin
Melatonin
Metformin
Molnupiravir
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Peg.. Lambda
Povidone-Iod..
Proxalutamide
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Sleep
Sotrovimab
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Zinc

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Summary
All studies
Exclusions
Mortality
Ventilation
ICU
Hospitalization
Serious outcomes
Recovery
Cases
RCTs
RCT mortality
Peer-reviewed
All outcomes

Feedback
Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for N-acetylcysteine  COVID-19 treatment studies for N-acetylcys..  C19 studies: N-acetylcys..  N-acetylcys..   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Antiandrogens (meta) Lactoferrin (meta)
Aspirin (meta) Melatonin (meta)
Bamlaniv../e.. (meta) Metformin (meta)
Bebtelovimab (meta) Molnupiravir (meta)
Bromhexine (meta) N-acetylcys.. (meta)
Budesonide (meta) Nigella Sativa (meta)
Cannabidiol (meta) Nitazoxanide (meta)
Casirivimab/i.. (meta) Paxlovid (meta)
Colchicine (meta) Peg.. Lambda (meta)
Conv. Plasma (meta) Povidone-Iod.. (meta)
Curcumin (meta) Probiotics (meta)
Diet (meta) Proxalutamide (meta)
Ensitrelvir (meta) Quercetin (meta)
Ensovibep (meta) Remdesivir (meta)
Exercise (meta) Sleep (meta)
Famotidine (meta) Sotrovimab (meta)
Favipiravir (meta) Tixagev../c.. (meta)
Fluvoxamine (meta) Vitamin A (meta)
Hydroxychlor.. (meta) Vitamin C (meta)
Iota-carragee.. (meta) Vitamin D (meta)
Ivermectin (meta) Zinc (meta)

Other Treatments Global Adoption
Outcomes in COVID-19 N-acetylcysteine studies
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 23% 13 24,349 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk Mortality 29% 9 23,887 Ventilation 8% 3 273 ICU admission 0% 4 1,174 Hospitalization 16% 6 735 Recovery 48% 4 1,343 Cases 26% 1 0 RCTs 15% 4 578 RCT mortality 11% 2 227 Peer-reviewed 26% 11 21,881 Prophylaxis 26% 1 0 Early 21% 2 416 Late 24% 10 23,933 N-acetylcysteine for COVID-19 c19early.com/na May 2022 FavorsN-acetylcysteine Favorscontrol after exclusions
0 0.5 1 1.5+ ALL STUDIES MORTALITY VENTILATION ICU ADMISSION HOSPITALIZATION RECOVERY CASES RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS RCT MORTALITY PEER-REVIEWED After Exclusions ALL STUDIES All Prophylaxis Early Late N-acetylcysteine for COVID-19 C19EARLY.COM/NA MAY 2022
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ignatova 20% 0.80 [0.64-1.00] hosp. time 56 (n) 55 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.043 Early treatment 21% 0.79 [0.63-0.99] 0/285 1/131 21% improvement de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] death 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gaynitdinova (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Pellegrini 52% 0.48 [0.33-0.70] death 138 (n) 726 (n) Pourhoseingholi 11% 0.89 [0.68-1.18] death 65/309 274/2,159 Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] death 12/47 14/45 Assimakopoulos 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.30] death 2/42 12/40 Avdeev 69% 0.31 [0.03-2.72] death 1/24 3/22 Faverio (PSW) -19% 1.19 [0.85-1.66] death 91/572 44/329 Ramadhan -135% 2.35 [0.33-16.9] death 11/75 1/16 Izquierdo 26% 0.74 [0.63-0.88] death 136/2,071 1,935/17,137 Tau​2 = 0.07, I​2 = 76.0%, p = 0.02 Late treatment 24% 0.76 [0.60-0.96] 327/3,369 2,292/20,564 24% improvement Huh 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] cases population-based cohort Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Prophylaxis 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] 26% improvement All studies 23% 0.77 [0.67-0.89] 327/3,654 2,293/20,695 23% improvement 13 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 studies c19early.com/na May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.03, I​2 = 71.2%, p = 0.00061 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ignatova 20% 0.80 [0.64-1.00] hosp. time 56 (n) 55 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.043 Early treatment 21% 0.79 [0.63-0.99] 0/285 1/131 21% improvement de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] death 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gaynitdinova (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Pellegrini 52% 0.48 [0.33-0.70] death 138 (n) 726 (n) Pourhoseingholi 11% 0.89 [0.68-1.18] death 65/309 274/2,159 Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] death 12/47 14/45 Assimakopoulos 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.30] death 2/42 12/40 Avdeev 69% 0.31 [0.03-2.72] death 1/24 3/22 Faverio (PSW) -19% 1.19 [0.85-1.66] death 91/572 44/329 Tau​2 = 0.12, I​2 = 79.9%, p = 0.039 Late treatment 28% 0.72 [0.53-0.98] 180/1,223 356/3,411 28% improvement Huh 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] cases population-based cohort Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Prophylaxis 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] 26% improvement All studies 23% 0.77 [0.65-0.91] 180/1,508 357/3,542 23% improvement 11 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 studies after exclusions c19early.com/na May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.04, I​2 = 75.1%, p = 0.0026 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Pellegrini 52% 0.48 [0.33-0.70] 138 (n) 726 (n) Pourhoseingholi 11% 0.89 [0.68-1.18] 65/309 274/2,159 Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] 12/47 14/45 Assimakopoulos 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.30] 2/42 12/40 Avdeev 69% 0.31 [0.03-2.72] 1/24 3/22 Faverio (PSW) -19% 1.19 [0.85-1.66] 91/572 44/329 Ramadhan -135% 2.35 [0.33-16.9] 11/75 1/16 Izquierdo 26% 0.74 [0.63-0.88] 136/2,071 1,935/17,137 Tau​2 = 0.15, I​2 = 78.0%, p = 0.045 Late treatment 29% 0.71 [0.51-0.99] 327/3,345 2,292/20,542 29% improvement All studies 29% 0.71 [0.51-0.99] 327/3,345 2,292/20,542 29% improvement 9 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 mortality results c19early.com/na May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.15, I​2 = 78.0%, p = 0.045 Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ de Alencar (DB RCT) -16% 1.16 [0.59-2.01] 16/67 14/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Taher (DB RCT) 14% 0.86 [0.53-1.40] 18/47 20/45 Avdeev 77% 0.23 [0.03-1.90] 1/24 4/22 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 10.9%, p = 0.7 Late treatment 8% 0.92 [0.60-1.40] 35/138 38/135 8% improvement All studies 8% 0.92 [0.60-1.40] 35/138 38/135 8% improvement 3 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19early.com/na May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.02, I​2 = 10.9%, p = 0.7 Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ de Alencar (DB RCT) 9% 0.91 [0.59-1.28] 29/67 32/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Taher (DB RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.44-1.47] 47 (n) 45 (n) Avdeev 77% 0.23 [0.03-1.90] 1/24 4/22 Faverio (PSW) -34% 1.34 [0.97-1.84] 107/572 46/329 Tau​2 = 0.05, I​2 = 45.5%, p = 0.99 Late treatment 0% 1.00 [0.70-1.42] 137/710 82/464 0% improvement All studies 0% 1.00 [0.70-1.42] 137/710 82/464 0% improvement 4 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 ICU results c19early.com/na May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.05, I​2 = 45.5%, p = 0.99 Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ignatova 20% 0.80 [0.64-1.00] hosp. time 56 (n) 55 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.043 Early treatment 21% 0.79 [0.63-0.99] 0/285 1/131 21% improvement de Alencar (DB RCT) -10% 1.10 [0.37-3.23] hosp. time 67 (n) 68 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gaynitdinova (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Taher (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.31-1.45] hosp. time 47 (n) 45 (n) Avdeev 15% 0.85 [0.75-0.96] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 15% 0.85 [0.78-0.91] 0/162 0/157 15% improvement All studies 16% 0.84 [0.78-0.90] 0/447 1/288 16% improvement 6 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 hospitalization results c19early.com/na May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.33 Early treatment 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] 0/229 1/76 80% improvement de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] death 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Pellegrini 52% 0.48 [0.33-0.70] death 138 (n) 726 (n) Pourhoseingholi 11% 0.89 [0.68-1.18] death 65/309 274/2,159 Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] death 12/47 14/45 Assimakopoulos 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.30] death 2/42 12/40 Avdeev 69% 0.31 [0.03-2.72] death 1/24 3/22 Faverio (PSW) -19% 1.19 [0.85-1.66] death 91/572 44/329 Ramadhan -135% 2.35 [0.33-16.9] death 11/75 1/16 Izquierdo 26% 0.74 [0.63-0.88] death 136/2,071 1,935/17,137 Tau​2 = 0.15, I​2 = 78.0%, p = 0.045 Late treatment 29% 0.71 [0.51-0.99] 327/3,345 2,292/20,542 29% improvement All studies 30% 0.70 [0.50-0.98] 327/3,574 2,293/20,618 30% improvement 10 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 serious outcomes c19early.com/na May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.14, I​2 = 75.7%, p = 0.036 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 83% 0.17 [0.13-0.24] no recov. 229 (n) 75 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Early treatment 83% 0.17 [0.13-0.24] 0/229 0/75 83% improvement Gaynitdinova (RCT) 51% 0.49 [0.32-0.75] Ct imp. 24 (n) 22 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Taher (DB RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.60-1.22] no recov. 25/47 28/45 Faverio (PSW) 1% 0.99 [0.81-1.20] no disch. 180/572 105/329 Tau​2 = 0.08, I​2 = 76.7%, p = 0.18 Late treatment 23% 0.77 [0.53-1.13] 205/643 133/396 23% improvement All studies 48% 0.52 [0.23-1.18] 205/872 133/471 48% improvement 4 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 recovery results c19early.com/na May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.68, I​2 = 96.5%, p = 0.12 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Huh 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] cases population-based cohort Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Prophylaxis 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] 26% improvement All studies 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] 26% improvement 1 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 case result c19early.com/na May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.33 Early treatment 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] 0/229 1/76 80% improvement de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] death 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gaynitdinova (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] death 12/47 14/45 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.00093 Late treatment 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] 21/138 23/135 15% improvement All studies 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] 21/367 24/211 15% improvement 4 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 Randomized Controlled Trials c19early.com/na May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.00084 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] 12/47 14/45 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.68 Late treatment 11% 0.89 [0.53-1.50] 21/114 23/113 11% improvement All studies 11% 0.89 [0.53-1.50] 21/114 23/113 11% improvement 2 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 RCT mortality results c19early.com/na May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.68 Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Ignatova 20% 0.80 [0.64-1.00] hosp. time 56 (n) 55 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.043 Early treatment 21% 0.79 [0.63-0.99] 0/285 1/131 21% improvement de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] death 9/67 9/68 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Gaynitdinova (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Pellegrini 52% 0.48 [0.33-0.70] death 138 (n) 726 (n) Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] death 12/47 14/45 Assimakopoulos 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.30] death 2/42 12/40 Avdeev 69% 0.31 [0.03-2.72] death 1/24 3/22 Faverio (PSW) -19% 1.19 [0.85-1.66] death 91/572 44/329 Ramadhan -135% 2.35 [0.33-16.9] death 11/75 1/16 Izquierdo 26% 0.74 [0.63-0.88] death 136/2,071 1,935/17,137 Tau​2 = 0.09, I​2 = 78.4%, p = 0.024 Late treatment 27% 0.73 [0.55-0.96] 262/3,060 2,018/18,405 27% improvement All studies 26% 0.74 [0.59-0.93] 262/3,345 2,019/18,536 26% improvement 11 N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 peer reviewed trials c19early.com/na May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.07, I​2 = 73.5%, p = 0.01 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Altay (DB RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.85] hosp. 0/229 1/76 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Altay (DB RCT) 83% 0.17 [0.13-0.24] no recov. 229 (n) 75 (n) CT​1 Ignatova 20% 0.80 [0.64-1.00] hosp. time 56 (n) 55 (n) de Alencar (DB RCT) -3% 1.03 [0.41-2.27] death 9/67 9/68 de Alencar (DB RCT) -16% 1.16 [0.59-2.01] ventilation 16/67 14/68 de Alencar (DB RCT) 9% 0.91 [0.59-1.28] ICU 29/67 32/68 de Alencar (DB RCT) -12% 1.12 [0.77-1.65] ICU 67 (n) 68 (n) de Alencar (DB RCT) -10% 1.10 [0.37-3.23] hosp. time 67 (n) 68 (n) Gaynitdinova (RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.93] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Gaynitdinova (RCT) 51% 0.49 [0.32-0.75] Ct imp. 24 (n) 22 (n) Pellegrini 52% 0.48 [0.33-0.70] death 138 (n) 726 (n) Pourhoseingholi 11% 0.89 [0.68-1.18] death 65/309 274/2,159 Taher (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.43-1.58] death 12/47 14/45 Taher (DB RCT) 14% 0.86 [0.53-1.40] ventilation 18/47 20/45 Taher (DB RCT) 20% 0.80 [0.44-1.47] ICU 47 (n) 45 (n) Taher (DB RCT) 33% 0.67 [0.31-1.45] hosp. time 47 (n) 45 (n) Taher (DB RCT) 15% 0.85 [0.60-1.22] no recov. 25/47 28/45 Assimakopoulos 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.30] death 2/42 12/40 Avdeev 69% 0.31 [0.03-2.72] death 1/24 3/22 Avdeev 77% 0.23 [0.03-1.90] ventilation 1/24 4/22 Avdeev 77% 0.23 [0.03-1.90] ICU 1/24 4/22 Avdeev 15% 0.85 [0.75-0.96] hosp. time 24 (n) 22 (n) Faverio (PSW) -19% 1.19 [0.85-1.66] death 91/572 44/329 Faverio (PSW) -34% 1.34 [0.97-1.84] ICU 107/572 46/329 Faverio (PSW) 1% 0.99 [0.81-1.20] no disch. 180/572 105/329 Ramadhan -135% 2.35 [0.33-16.9] death 11/75 1/16 Izquierdo 26% 0.74 [0.63-0.88] death 136/2,071 1,935/17,137 Huh 26% 0.74 [0.68-0.80] cases population-based cohort N-acetylcysteine COVID-19 outcomes c19early.com/na May 2022 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases mortality, morbidity, collateral damage, and the risk of endemic status. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Thanks for your feedback! Please search before submitting papers and note that studies are listed under the date they were first available, which may be the date of an earlier preprint.
Submit