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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Metformin  COVID-19 treatment studies for Metformin  C19 studies: Metformin  Metformin   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
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Other Treatments Global Adoption
Outcomes in COVID-19 metformin studies
Outcomes in metformin studies. Most studies analyze existing use with diabetic patients. Many results are subject to confounding by indication — metformin is typically used early in the progression of type 2 diabetes.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ All studies 14% 11 25,758 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk, 95% CI With exclusions 15% 9 10,165 Mortality 19% 8 7,303 ICU admission 2% 1 0 Hospitalization 3% 1 0 Progression -1% 1 2,805 Cases 3% 2 15,227 Viral clearance 4% 1 423 RCTs -15% 1 423 Peer-reviewed 16% 9 10,108 Prophylaxis 15% 10 25,335 Early -15% 1 423 Metformin for COVID-19 c19early.com/mf Dec 5, 2021 Favors metformin Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Reis (DB RCT) -15% 1.15 [0.73-1.83] hosp./ER 32/217 27/206 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment -15% 1.15 [0.73-1.83] 32/217 27/206 -15% improvement Luo 75% 0.25 [0.07-0.84] death 3/104 22/179 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Wang 58% 0.42 [0.01-1.98] death 1/9 13/49 Chen 33% 0.67 [0.20-1.78] death 4/43 15/77 Bramante 7% 0.93 [0.81-1.06] death 394/2,333 791/3,923 Huh -1% 1.01 [0.75-1.37] progression 104/272 774/2,533 Crouse 61% 0.39 [0.16-0.87] death 8/76 34/144 Holt -27% 1.27 [0.72-2.22] cases 12/429 434/14,798 Khunti 23% 0.77 [0.73-0.81] death population-based cohort Ravindra 30% 0.70 [0.28-1.56] death 5/53 57/313 Wander 15% 0.85 [0.80-0.90] death Tau​2 = 0.01; I​2 = 74.4% Prophylaxis 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.95] 531/3,319 2,140/22,016 15% improvement All studies 14% 0.86 [0.78-0.96] 563/3,536 2,167/22,222 14% improvement 11 metformin COVID-19 studies c19early.com/mf Dec 5, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.01; I​2 = 73.2%; Z = 2.80 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors metformin Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Reis (DB RCT) -15% 1.15 [0.73-1.83] hosp./ER 32/217 27/206 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment -15% 1.15 [0.73-1.83] 32/217 27/206 -15% improvement Luo 75% 0.25 [0.07-0.84] death 3/104 22/179 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Wang 58% 0.42 [0.01-1.98] death 1/9 13/49 Chen 33% 0.67 [0.20-1.78] death 4/43 15/77 Bramante 7% 0.93 [0.81-1.06] death 394/2,333 791/3,923 Huh -1% 1.01 [0.75-1.37] progression 104/272 774/2,533 Crouse 61% 0.39 [0.16-0.87] death 8/76 34/144 Khunti 23% 0.77 [0.73-0.81] death population-based cohort Wander 15% 0.85 [0.80-0.90] death Tau​2 = 0.01; I​2 = 78.5% Prophylaxis 16% 0.84 [0.76-0.94] 514/2,837 1,649/6,905 16% improvement All studies 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.95] 546/3,054 1,676/7,111 15% improvement 9 metformin COVID-19 studies after exclusions c19early.com/mf Dec 5, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.01; I​2 = 76.9%; Z = 2.92 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors metformin Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Luo 75% 0.25 [0.07-0.84] 3/104 22/179 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Wang 58% 0.42 [0.01-1.98] 1/9 13/49 Chen 33% 0.67 [0.20-1.78] 4/43 15/77 Bramante 7% 0.93 [0.81-1.06] 394/2,333 791/3,923 Crouse 61% 0.39 [0.16-0.87] 8/76 34/144 Khunti 23% 0.77 [0.73-0.81] population-based cohort Ravindra 30% 0.70 [0.28-1.56] 5/53 57/313 Wander 15% 0.85 [0.80-0.90] Tau​2 = 0.01; I​2 = 71.6% Prophylaxis 19% 0.81 [0.73-0.90] 415/2,618 932/4,685 19% improvement All studies 19% 0.81 [0.73-0.90] 415/2,618 932/4,685 19% improvement 8 metformin COVID-19 mortality results c19early.com/mf Dec 5, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.01; I​2 = 71.6%; Z = 3.89 Favors metformin Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Wander 2% 0.98 [0.92-1.06] Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Prophylaxis 2% 0.98 [0.92-1.06] 2% improvement All studies 2% 0.98 [0.91-1.05] 2% improvement 1 metformin COVID-19 ICU result c19early.com/mf Dec 5, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 0.52 Favors metformin Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Wander 3% 0.97 [0.94-1.01] hosp. Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Prophylaxis 3% 0.97 [0.94-1.01] 3% improvement All studies 3% 0.97 [0.93-1.00] 3% improvement 1 metformin COVID-19 hospitalization result c19early.com/mf Dec 5, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 1.71 Favors metformin Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Reis (DB RCT) -15% 1.15 [0.73-1.83] hosp./ER 32/217 27/206 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment -15% 1.15 [0.73-1.83] 32/217 27/206 -15% improvement Luo 75% 0.25 [0.07-0.84] death 3/104 22/179 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Wang 58% 0.42 [0.01-1.98] death 1/9 13/49 Chen 33% 0.67 [0.20-1.78] death 4/43 15/77 Bramante 7% 0.93 [0.81-1.06] death 394/2,333 791/3,923 Huh -1% 1.01 [0.75-1.37] progression 104/272 774/2,533 Crouse 61% 0.39 [0.16-0.87] death 8/76 34/144 Khunti 23% 0.77 [0.73-0.81] death population-based cohort Ravindra 30% 0.70 [0.28-1.56] death 5/53 57/313 Wander 15% 0.85 [0.80-0.90] death Tau​2 = 0.01; I​2 = 75.5% Prophylaxis 16% 0.84 [0.76-0.93] 519/2,890 1,706/7,218 16% improvement All studies 15% 0.85 [0.77-0.94] 551/3,107 1,733/7,424 15% improvement 10 metformin COVID-19 serious outcomes c19early.com/mf Dec 5, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.01; I​2 = 74.1%; Z = 3.04 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors metformin Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Huh 4% 0.96 [0.82-1.12] population-based cohort Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Holt -27% 1.27 [0.72-2.22] 12/429 434/14,798 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Prophylaxis 3% 0.97 [0.88-1.07] 12/429 434/14,798 3% improvement All studies 3% 0.97 [0.88-1.07] 12/429 434/14,798 3% improvement 2 metformin COVID-19 case results c19early.com/mf Dec 5, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 0.64 Favors metformin Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Reis (DB RCT) 4% 0.96 [0.85-1.10] viral+ 217 (n) 206 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment 4% 0.96 [0.85-1.10] 0/217 0/206 4% improvement All studies 4% 0.96 [0.84-1.09] 0/217 0/206 4% improvement 1 metformin COVID-19 viral clearance result c19early.com/mf Dec 5, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 0.59 Favors metformin Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Reis (DB RCT) -15% 1.15 [0.73-1.83] hosp./ER 32/217 27/206 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment -15% 1.15 [0.73-1.83] 32/217 27/206 -15% improvement All studies -15% 1.15 [0.71-1.85] 32/217 27/206 -15% improvement 1 metformin COVID-19 Randomized Controlled Trials c19early.com/mf Dec 5, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 0.58 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors metformin Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Luo 75% 0.25 [0.07-0.84] death 3/104 22/179 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Wang 58% 0.42 [0.01-1.98] death 1/9 13/49 Chen 33% 0.67 [0.20-1.78] death 4/43 15/77 Bramante 7% 0.93 [0.81-1.06] death 394/2,333 791/3,923 Huh -1% 1.01 [0.75-1.37] progression 104/272 774/2,533 Crouse 61% 0.39 [0.16-0.87] death 8/76 34/144 Khunti 23% 0.77 [0.73-0.81] death population-based cohort Ravindra 30% 0.70 [0.28-1.56] death 5/53 57/313 Wander 15% 0.85 [0.80-0.90] death Tau​2 = 0.01; I​2 = 75.5% Prophylaxis 16% 0.84 [0.76-0.93] 519/2,890 1,706/7,218 16% improvement All studies 16% 0.84 [0.76-0.93] 519/2,890 1,706/7,218 16% improvement 9 metformin COVID-19 peer reviewed trials c19early.com/mf Dec 5, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.01; I​2 = 75.5%; Z = 3.25 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors metformin Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Reis (DB RCT) -15% 1.15 [0.73-1.83] hosp./ER 32/217 27/206 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Reis (DB RCT) -18% 1.18 [0.74-1.89] hosp./ER 217 (n) 206 (n) Reis (DB RCT) 4% 0.96 [0.85-1.10] viral+ 217 (n) 206 (n) Luo 75% 0.25 [0.07-0.84] death 3/104 22/179 Wang 58% 0.42 [0.01-1.98] death 1/9 13/49 Chen 33% 0.67 [0.20-1.78] death 4/43 15/77 Bramante 7% 0.93 [0.81-1.06] death 394/2,333 791/3,923 Bramante 24% 0.76 [0.60-0.96] death 1,129 (n) 2,173 (n) Bramante -3% 1.03 [0.84-1.27] death 1,204 (n) 1,750 (n) Huh -1% 1.01 [0.75-1.37] progression 104/272 774/2,533 Huh 4% 0.96 [0.82-1.12] cases population-based cohort Crouse 61% 0.39 [0.16-0.87] death 8/76 34/144 Holt -27% 1.27 [0.72-2.22] cases 12/429 434/14,798 Khunti 23% 0.77 [0.73-0.81] death population-based cohort Ravindra 30% 0.70 [0.28-1.56] death 5/53 57/313 Wander 15% 0.85 [0.80-0.90] death Wander 2% 0.98 [0.92-1.06] ICU Wander 3% 0.97 [0.94-1.01] hosp. metformin COVID-19 outcomes c19early.com/mf Dec 5, 2021 Favors metformin Favors control
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
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