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Antiandrogens for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 34 studies
Covid Analysis, May 25, 2022, DRAFT
https://c19early.com/aameta.html
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 23% 34 62,864 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk Mortality 34% 24 59,004 Ventilation 35% 7 641 ICU admission 18% 8 6,031 Hospitalization 10% 8 6,286 Recovery 42% 9 1,165 Cases 9% 11 92,725 Viral clearance 37% 3 560 RCTs 45% 10 755 RCT mortality 51% 8 602 Peer-reviewed 21% 31 62,388 Prophylaxis 7% 18 61,196 Early 68% 2 357 Late 59% 14 1,311 Antiandrogens for COVID-19 c19early.com/aa May 2022 Favorsantiandrogen Favorscontrol after exclusions
Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality, recovery, cases, and viral clearance. 18 studies from 10 different countries show statistically significant improvements in isolation (11 for the most serious outcome).
Meta analysis using the most serious outcome reported shows 23% [13‑32%] improvement. Results are better for Randomized Controlled Trials, similar after exclusions, and similar for peer-reviewed studies.
Results are robust — in exclusion sensitivity analysis 16 of 34 studies must be excluded to avoid finding statistically significant efficacy in pooled analysis.
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 23% 34 62,864 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk Mortality 34% 24 59,004 Ventilation 35% 7 641 ICU admission 18% 8 6,031 Hospitalization 10% 8 6,286 Recovery 42% 9 1,165 Cases 9% 11 92,725 Viral clearance 37% 3 560 RCTs 45% 10 755 RCT mortality 51% 8 602 Peer-reviewed 21% 31 62,388 Prophylaxis 7% 18 61,196 Early 68% 2 357 Late 59% 14 1,311 Antiandrogens for COVID-19 c19early.com/aa May 2022 Favorsantiandrogen Favorscontrol after exclusions
This analysis combines the results of several different antiandrogens. Results for individual treatments may vary. Proxalutamide is analyzed separately.
While many treatments have some level of efficacy, they do not replace vaccines and other measures to avoid infection. Only 15% of antiandrogen studies show zero events in the treatment arm. Multiple treatments are typically used in combination, and other treatments are more effective.
No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all variants. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Denying the efficacy of treatments increases mortality, morbidity, collateral damage, and endemic risk.
All data to reproduce this paper and sources are in the appendix.
Highlights
Antiandrogens reduce risk for COVID-19 with very high confidence for mortality, recovery, viral clearance, and in pooled analysis, high confidence for cases, and low confidence for ventilation. This analysis combines the results of several different antiandrogens. Proxalutamide is analyzed separately.
We show traditional outcome specific analyses and combined evidence from all studies, incorporating treatment delay, a primary confounding factor in COVID-19 studies.
Real-time updates and corrections, transparent analysis with all results in the same format, consistent protocol for 42 treatments.
A
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Cadegiani 77% 0.23 [0.08-0.66] recov. time 8 (n) 262 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Cadegiani (DB RCT) 62% 0.38 [0.18-0.82] no recov. 7/44 18/43 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.00032 Early treatment 68% 0.32 [0.17-0.59] 7/52 18/305 68% improvement Vicenzi 93% 0.07 [0.04-0.53] death 30 (n) 39 (n) OT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Goren 81% 0.19 [0.03-1.28] ICU 1/12 17/36 Mareev (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.65-1.22] no recov. 33 (n) 33 (n) CT​2 Zarehoseinz.. (RCT) 75% 0.25 [0.03-2.14] death 1/40 4/40 Ersoy (ICU) 46% 0.54 [0.36-0.81] death 14/30 26/30 ICU patients Welén (RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.65] death 0/29 1/10 Davarpanah 78% 0.22 [0.08-0.55] hosp. 6/103 23/103 CT​2 Kotfis (RCT) 17% 0.83 [0.25-2.74] death 4/24 5/25 Abbasi (SB RCT) 55% 0.45 [0.18-1.13] death 5/51 19/87 Gomaa (DB RCT) 91% 0.09 [0.01-1.56] death 0/25 5/25 CT​2 Hsieh 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.22] death 0/117 4/143 CT​2 Veru (DB RCT) 54% 0.46 [0.28-0.76] death 20/98 23/52 Nickols (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.32-1.82] death 11/62 7/34 Gordon (DB RCT) 82% 0.18 [0.03-0.94] death n/a n/a Tau​2 = 0.23, I​2 = 58.7%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 59% 0.41 [0.28-0.61] 62/654 134/657 59% improvement Montopoli 95% 0.05 [0.00-0.77] death 0/5,273 18/37,161 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Koskinen 46% 0.54 [0.06-5.16] death 1/134 3/218 Patel 55% 0.45 [0.11-1.47] death 4/22 10/36 Bennani 95% 0.05 [0.00-2063] death 0/4 18/114 Lazzeri -23% 1.23 [0.81-1.87] death/ICU Kwon 21% 0.79 [0.10-6.40] death 1/799 7/4,412 Klein -124% 2.24 [0.86-5.85] death 6/304 13/1,475 Jeon 77% 0.23 [0.08-0.64] cases case control Shaw (PSM) 6% 0.94 [0.88-1.01] cases 47 (n) 97 (n) Jiménez-Alcaide 33% 0.67 [0.26-1.74] death 3/11 17/50 Kazan -229% 3.29 [0.61-17.7] hosp. 4/138 2/227 Schmidt (PSM) 20% 0.80 [0.46-1.34] death 25/169 44/308 Duarte 11% 0.89 [0.59-1.11] death 100/156 32/43 Welén 2% 0.98 [0.61-1.59] death 21/358 167/4,980 Gedeborg -25% 1.25 [0.95-1.65] death case control Lyon 17% 0.83 [0.42-1.63] death 15/944 19/994 Lee (PSW) 21% 0.79 [0.62-0.97] severe case 76/295 727/2,427 MacFadden 7% 0.93 [0.88-0.98] cases n/a n/a Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 56.8%, p = 0.16 Prophylaxis 7% 0.93 [0.85-1.03] 256/8,654 1,077/52,542 7% improvement All studies 23% 0.77 [0.68-0.87] 325/9,360 1,229/53,504 23% improvement 34 antiandrogen COVID-19 studies c19early.com/aa May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.03, I​2 = 69.5%, p < 0.0001 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome, see appendix) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors antiandrogen Favors control
Figure 1. A. Random effects meta-analysis. This plot shows pooled effects, discussion can be found in the heterogeneity section, and results for specific outcomes can be found in the individual outcome analyses. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported. For details of effect extraction see the appendix. B. Scatter plot showing the distribution of effects reported in studies. C. History of all reported effects (chronological within treatment stages).
Introduction
We analyze all significant studies concerning the use of antiandrogens for COVID-19. Search methods, inclusion criteria, effect extraction criteria (more serious outcomes have priority), all individual study data, PRISMA answers, and statistical methods are detailed in Appendix 1. We present random effects meta-analysis results for all studies, for studies within each treatment stage, for individual outcomes, for peer-reviewed studies, for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), and after exclusions.
Figure 2 shows stages of possible treatment for COVID-19. Prophylaxis refers to regularly taking medication before becoming sick, in order to prevent or minimize infection. Early Treatment refers to treatment immediately or soon after symptoms appear, while Late Treatment refers to more delayed treatment.
Figure 2. Treatment stages.
Preclinical Research
An In Silico study supports the efficacy of antiandrogens [Saih].
An In Vivo animal study supports the efficacy of antiandrogens [Leach].
Preclinical research is an important part of the development of treatments, however results may be very different in clinical trials. Preclinical results are not used in this paper.
Results
Figure 3 shows a visual overview of the results, with details in Table 1 and Table 2. Figure 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 show forest plots for a random effects meta-analysis of all studies with pooled effects, mortality results, ventilation, ICU admission, hospitalization, progression, recovery, cases, viral clearance, and peer reviewed studies.
0 0.5 1 1.5+ ALL STUDIES MORTALITY VENTILATION ICU ADMISSION HOSPITALIZATION RECOVERY CASES VIRAL CLEARANCE RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS RCT MORTALITY PEER-REVIEWED After Exclusions ALL STUDIES All Prophylaxis Early Late Antiandrogens for COVID-19 C19EARLY.COM/AA MAY 2022
Figure 3. Overview of results.
Treatment timeNumber of studies reporting positive effects Total number of studiesPercentage of studies reporting positive effects Random effects meta-analysis results
Early treatment 2 2 100% 68% improvement
RR 0.32 [0.17‑0.59]
p = 0.00032
Late treatment 14 14 100% 59% improvement
RR 0.41 [0.28‑0.61]
p < 0.0001
Prophylaxis 14 18 77.8% 7% improvement
RR 0.93 [0.85‑1.03]
p = 0.16
All studies 30 34 88.2% 23% improvement
RR 0.77 [0.68‑0.87]
p < 0.0001
Table 1. Results by treatment stage.
Studies Early treatment Late treatment Prophylaxis PatientsAuthors
All studies 3468% [41‑83%]59% [39‑72%]7% [-3‑15%] 62,864 365
With exclusions 3159% [39‑72%]7% [-2‑16%] 62,142 347
Peer-reviewed 3162% [18‑82%]55% [34‑70%]8% [-2‑17%] 62,388 341
Randomized Controlled TrialsRCTs 1062% [18‑82%]42% [15‑60%] 755 118
Table 2. Results by treatment stage for all studies and with different exclusions.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Cadegiani 77% 0.23 [0.08-0.66] recov. time 8 (n) 262 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Cadegiani (DB RCT) 62% 0.38 [0.18-0.82] no recov. 7/44 18/43 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.00032 Early treatment 68% 0.32 [0.17-0.59] 7/52 18/305 68% improvement Vicenzi 93% 0.07 [0.04-0.53] death 30 (n) 39 (n) OT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Goren 81% 0.19 [0.03-1.28] ICU 1/12 17/36 Mareev (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.65-1.22] no recov. 33 (n) 33 (n) CT​2 Zarehoseinz.. (RCT) 75% 0.25 [0.03-2.14] death 1/40 4/40 Ersoy (ICU) 46% 0.54 [0.36-0.81] death 14/30 26/30 ICU patients Welén (RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.65] death 0/29 1/10 Davarpanah 78% 0.22 [0.08-0.55] hosp. 6/103 23/103 CT​2 Kotfis (RCT) 17% 0.83 [0.25-2.74] death 4/24 5/25 Abbasi (SB RCT) 55% 0.45 [0.18-1.13] death 5/51 19/87 Gomaa (DB RCT) 91% 0.09 [0.01-1.56] death 0/25 5/25 CT​2 Hsieh 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.22] death 0/117 4/143 CT​2 Veru (DB RCT) 54% 0.46 [0.28-0.76] death 20/98 23/52 Nickols (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.32-1.82] death 11/62 7/34 Gordon (DB RCT) 82% 0.18 [0.03-0.94] death n/a n/a Tau​2 = 0.23, I​2 = 58.7%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 59% 0.41 [0.28-0.61] 62/654 134/657 59% improvement Montopoli 95% 0.05 [0.00-0.77] death 0/5,273 18/37,161 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Koskinen 46% 0.54 [0.06-5.16] death 1/134 3/218 Patel 55% 0.45 [0.11-1.47] death 4/22 10/36 Bennani 95% 0.05 [0.00-2063] death 0/4 18/114 Lazzeri -23% 1.23 [0.81-1.87] death/ICU Kwon 21% 0.79 [0.10-6.40] death 1/799 7/4,412 Klein -124% 2.24 [0.86-5.85] death 6/304 13/1,475 Jeon 77% 0.23 [0.08-0.64] cases case control Shaw (PSM) 6% 0.94 [0.88-1.01] cases 47 (n) 97 (n) Jiménez-Alcaide 33% 0.67 [0.26-1.74] death 3/11 17/50 Kazan -229% 3.29 [0.61-17.7] hosp. 4/138 2/227 Schmidt (PSM) 20% 0.80 [0.46-1.34] death 25/169 44/308 Duarte 11% 0.89 [0.59-1.11] death 100/156 32/43 Welén 2% 0.98 [0.61-1.59] death 21/358 167/4,980 Gedeborg -25% 1.25 [0.95-1.65] death case control Lyon 17% 0.83 [0.42-1.63] death 15/944 19/994 Lee (PSW) 21% 0.79 [0.62-0.97] severe case 76/295 727/2,427 MacFadden 7% 0.93 [0.88-0.98] cases n/a n/a Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 56.8%, p = 0.16 Prophylaxis 7% 0.93 [0.85-1.03] 256/8,654 1,077/52,542 7% improvement All studies 23% 0.77 [0.68-0.87] 325/9,360 1,229/53,504 23% improvement 34 antiandrogen COVID-19 studies c19early.com/aa May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.03, I​2 = 69.5%, p < 0.0001 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome, see appendix) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors antiandrogen Favors control
Figure 4. Random effects meta-analysis for all studies with pooled effects. This plot shows pooled effects, discussion can be found in the heterogeneity section, and results for specific outcomes can be found in the individual outcome analyses. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported. For details of effect extraction see the appendix.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Vicenzi 93% 0.07 [0.04-0.53] 30 (n) 39 (n) OT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Goren -50% 1.50 [0.15-15.1] 1/12 2/36 Zarehoseinz.. (RCT) 75% 0.25 [0.03-2.14] 1/40 4/40 Ersoy (ICU) 46% 0.54 [0.36-0.81] 14/30 26/30 ICU patients Welén (RCT) 80% 0.20 [0.01-4.65] 0/29 1/10 Kotfis (RCT) 17% 0.83 [0.25-2.74] 4/24 5/25 Abbasi (SB RCT) 55% 0.45 [0.18-1.13] 5/51 19/87 Gomaa (DB RCT) 91% 0.09 [0.01-1.56] 0/25 5/25 CT​2 Hsieh 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.22] 0/117 4/143 CT​2 Veru (DB RCT) 54% 0.46 [0.28-0.76] 20/98 23/52 Nickols (DB RCT) 18% 0.82 [0.32-1.82] 11/62 7/34 Gordon (DB RCT) 82% 0.18 [0.03-0.94] n/a n/a Tau​2 = 0.12, I​2 = 32.4%, p < 0.0001 Late treatment 57% 0.43 [0.29-0.63] 56/518 96/521 57% improvement Montopoli 95% 0.05 [0.00-0.77] 0/5,273 18/37,161 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Koskinen 46% 0.54 [0.06-5.16] 1/134 3/218 Patel 55% 0.45 [0.11-1.47] 4/22 10/36 Bennani 95% 0.05 [0.00-2063] 0/4 18/114 Kwon 21% 0.79 [0.10-6.40] 1/799 7/4,412 Klein -124% 2.24 [0.86-5.85] 6/304 13/1,475 Jiménez-Alcaide 33% 0.67 [0.26-1.74] 3/11 17/50 Schmidt (PSM) 20% 0.80 [0.46-1.34] 25/169 44/308 Duarte 11% 0.89 [0.59-1.11] 100/156 32/43 Welén 2% 0.98 [0.61-1.59] 21/358 167/4,980 Gedeborg -25% 1.25 [0.95-1.65] case control Lyon 17% 0.83 [0.42-1.63] 15/944 19/994 Tau​2 = 0.04, I​2 = 42.3%, p = 0.6 Prophylaxis 6% 0.94 [0.75-1.18] 176/8,174 348/49,791 6% improvement All studies 34% 0.66 [0.51-0.86] 232/8,692 444/50,312 34% improvement 24 antiandrogen COVID-19 mortality results c19early.com/aa May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.16, I​2 = 64.3%, p = 0.002 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors antiandrogen Favors control
Figure 5. Random effects meta-analysis for mortality results.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Welén (RCT) 31% 0.69 [0.07-6.81] 2/29 1/10 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Abbasi (SB RCT) 34% 0.66 [0.30-1.48] 7/51 18/87 Gomaa (DB RCT) 91% 0.09 [0.01-1.56] 0/25 5/25 CT​1 Hsieh 51% 0.49 [0.10-2.47] 2/117 5/143 CT​1 Nickols (DB RCT) -19% 1.19 [0.50-2.84] 13/62 6/34 Gordon (DB RCT) 76% 0.24 [0.03-1.63] n/a n/a Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.15 Late treatment 31% 0.69 [0.41-1.15] 24/284 35/299 31% improvement Patel 69% 0.31 [0.05-1.81] 22 (n) 36 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.19 Prophylaxis 69% 0.31 [0.05-1.81] 0/22 0/36 69% improvement All studies 35% 0.65 [0.40-1.05] 24/306 35/335 35% improvement 7 antiandrogen COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19early.com/aa May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.08 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors antiandrogen Favors control
Figure 6. Random effects meta-analysis for ventilation.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Goren 81% 0.19 [0.03-1.28] 1/12 17/36 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Zarehoseinz.. (RCT) 0% 1.00 [0.06-15.4] 1/40 1/40 Kotfis (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.35-2.28] 6/24 7/25 Abbasi (SB RCT) 19% 0.81 [0.42-1.59] 10/51 21/87 Hsieh 30% 0.70 [0.21-2.33] 4/117 7/143 CT​1 Gordon (DB RCT) 73% 0.27 [0.09-0.86] n/a n/a Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.05 Late treatment 35% 0.65 [0.42-1.00] 22/244 53/331 35% improvement Bennani -119% 2.19 [0.37-12.9] 1/4 13/114 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Welén -28% 1.28 [0.82-1.99] 24/358 216/4,980 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.18 Prophylaxis -32% 1.32 [0.88-1.96] 25/362 229/5,094 -32% improvement All studies 18% 0.82 [0.53-1.27] 47/606 282/5,425 18% improvement 8 antiandrogen COVID-19 ICU results c19early.com/aa May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.12, I​2 = 34.4%, p = 0.38 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors antiandrogen Favors control
Figure 7. Random effects meta-analysis for ICU admission.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Mareev (RCT) 8% 0.92 [0.77-1.09] hosp. time 33 (n) 33 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Welén (RCT) -50% 1.50 [1.10-2.04] hosp. time 29 (n) 10 (n) Davarpanah 78% 0.22 [0.08-0.55] hosp. 6/103 23/103 CT​1 Nickols (DB RCT) -20% 1.20 [0.02-92.1] hosp. time 62 (n) 34 (n) Tau​2 = 0.24, I​2 = 84.8%, p = 0.48 Late treatment 20% 0.80 [0.43-1.47] 6/227 23/180 20% improvement Patel 77% 0.23 [0.06-0.79] hosp. 22 (n) 36 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Bennani 25% 0.75 [0.28-2.02] hosp. 2/4 76/114 Kazan -229% 3.29 [0.61-17.7] hosp. 4/138 2/227 Welén -23% 1.23 [0.96-1.56] hosp. 126/358 1,108/4,980 Tau​2 = 0.41, I​2 = 67.3%, p = 0.78 Prophylaxis 11% 0.89 [0.40-1.97] 132/522 1,186/5,357 11% improvement All studies 10% 0.90 [0.64-1.27] 138/749 1,209/5,537 10% improvement 8 antiandrogen COVID-19 hospitalization results c19early.com/aa May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.12, I​2 = 78.2%, p = 0.58 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors antiandrogen Favors control
Figure 8. Random effects meta-analysis for hospitalization.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Jiménez-Alcaide -8% 1.08 [0.54-1.83] 11 (n) 50 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.77 Prophylaxis -8% 1.08 [0.54-1.83] 0/11 0/50 -8% improvement All studies -8% 1.08 [0.66-1.76] 0/11 0/50 -8% improvement 1 antiandrogen COVID-19 progression result c19early.com/aa May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.77 Favors antiandrogen Favors control
Figure 9. Random effects meta-analysis for progression.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Cadegiani 77% 0.23 [0.08-0.66] recov. time 8 (n) 262 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Cadegiani (DB RCT) 62% 0.38 [0.18-0.82] no recov. 7/44 18/43 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.00032 Early treatment 68% 0.32 [0.17-0.59] 7/52 18/305 68% improvement Mareev (RCT) 11% 0.89 [0.65-1.22] no recov. 33 (n) 33 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Welén (RCT) -133% 2.33 [1.06-5.00] no disch. 29 (n) 10 (n) Davarpanah 64% 0.36 [0.21-0.60] recov. time 103 (n) 103 (n) CT​1 Kotfis (RCT) 30% 0.70 [0.24-2.01] TFS 24 (n) 25 (n) Abbasi (SB RCT) 47% 0.53 [0.39-0.72] no recov. 51 (n) 87 (n) Gomaa (DB RCT) 44% 0.56 [0.40-0.79] recov. time 25 (n) 25 (n) CT​1 Hsieh 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.22] no recov. 0/117 4/143 CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.17, I​2 = 74.1%, p = 0.04 Late treatment 33% 0.67 [0.45-0.98] 0/382 4/426 33% improvement All studies 42% 0.58 [0.41-0.83] 7/434 22/731 42% improvement 9 antiandrogen COVID-19 recovery results c19early.com/aa May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.17, I​2 = 71.6%, p = 0.0032 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors antiandrogen Favors control
Figure 10. Random effects meta-analysis for recovery.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Montopoli 75% 0.25 [0.09-0.65] cases 4/5,273 114/37,161 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Koskinen 11% 0.89 [0.34-2.34] cases 6/134 11/218 Kwon -18% 1.18 [0.70-1.96] cases 18/799 79/4,412 Klein 7% 0.93 [0.55-1.56] cases 17/304 85/1,475 Jeon 77% 0.23 [0.08-0.64] cases case control Shaw (PSM) 6% 0.94 [0.88-1.01] cases 47 (n) 97 (n) Jiménez-Alcaide -68% 1.68 [0.90-3.16] cases 11/156 50/1,193 Kazan 29% 0.71 [0.39-1.32] cases 13/138 30/227 Lyon 7% 0.93 [0.86-1.00] cases 399/944 446/994 Lee (PSW) 11% 0.89 [0.82-0.95] cases 295/3,057 2,427/36,096 MacFadden 7% 0.93 [0.88-0.98] cases n/a n/a Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 58.0%, p = 0.025 Prophylaxis 9% 0.91 [0.85-0.99] 763/10,852 3,242/81,873 9% improvement All studies 9% 0.91 [0.85-0.99] 763/10,852 3,242/81,873 9% improvement 11 antiandrogen COVID-19 case results c19early.com/aa May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.01, I​2 = 58.0%, p = 0.025 Favors antiandrogen Favors control
Figure 11. Random effects meta-analysis for cases.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Cadegiani 38% 0.62 [0.42-0.91] viral time 8 (n) 262 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.015 Early treatment 38% 0.62 [0.42-0.91] 0/8 0/262 38% improvement Mareev (RCT) 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.25] viral+ 0/17 3/13 CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Hsieh 36% 0.64 [0.51-0.80] viral load 117 (n) 143 (n) CT​1 Tau​2 = 0.23, I​2 = 17.4%, p = 0.2 Late treatment 45% 0.55 [0.22-1.38] 0/134 3/156 45% improvement All studies 37% 0.63 [0.52-0.77] 0/142 3/418 37% improvement 3 antiandrogen COVID-19 viral clearance results c19early.com/aa May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p < 0.0001 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors antiandrogen Favors control
Figure 12. Random effects meta-analysis for viral clearance.