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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 studies   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
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Other Treatments Global Adoption
COVID-19 early treatment: real-time analysis of 2,158 studies
Analysis of 47 COVID early treatments, approvals in 74 countries, database of 1,713 treatments.  
No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective in all cases. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis.
Marinos
Meta analysis of ivermectin trials showing community use of ivermectin in Latin America associated with lower observed efficacy in trials,..
Aref
96 patient ivermectin long COVID RCT: 74% faster recovery [p=0.0005]
Obrișcă
95 patients HCQ prophylaxis: 87% fewer cases [p=0.01]
Mansour
Retrospective 30 ICU patients and 30 non-ICU hospitalized patients in Egypt, showing lower zinc levels in ICU patients. All patients received zinc..
Drew
Aspirin prophylaxis: 22% lower progression [p=0.3] and 3% more cases [p=0.8]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Iota-carragee.. 80% [11-96%] 1 $1 394 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Proxalutamide 78% [70-83%] 4 $500 1,953 limited data Indomethacin 74% [-20-94%] 4 $5 605 limited data Quercetin 63% [27-81%] 9 $5 1,279 Ivermectin 62% [54-69%] 92 $1 134,148 Casirivimab/i.. 56% [37-69%] 24 $2,100 48,169 variant dependent Bamlaniv../e.. 55% [30-71%] 14 $1,250 24,423 variant dependent Nigella Sativa 51% [23-69%] 10 $5 2,899 Bromhexine 50% [-8-77%] 6 $5 684 very limited data Povidone-Iod.. 49% [36-60%] 17 $1 2,857 Diet 49% [37-59%] 17 $0 607,017 Lactoferrin 48% [30-62%] 4 $5 786 Sotrovimab 48% [-36-80%] 9 $2,100 10,125 variant dependent Melatonin 47% [31-59%] 17 $1 14,075 Ensovibep 46% [-173-89%] 2 $2,100 885 limited data Vitamin A 46% [-6-72%] 9 $2 18,131 Nitric Oxide 46% [-4-72%] 6 $11 1,166 Tixagev../c.. 46% [17-64%] 6 $855 21,824 variant dependent Ensitrelvir 45% [19-63%] 1 $500 28 very limited data Spironolactone 45% [18-63%] 10 $5 3,137 Colchicine 41% [30-50%] 36 $1 23,055 Exercise 40% [33-46%] 39 $0 1,603,669 Curcumin 39% [31-46%] 21 $5 4,804 Vitamin D 36% [29-42%] 93 $1 180,704 Nitazoxanide 36% [-22-66%] 12 $4 3,530 Sleep 35% [22-47%] 8 $0 1,636 Peg.. Lambda 35% [-132-82%] 3 $500 2,116 subcutaneous Paxlovid 35% [24-44%] 16 $529 53,931 independent trial refused Fluvoxamine 35% [18-48%] 9 $4 23,778 Budesonide 33% [18-45%] 9 $4 25,919 Antiandrogens 31% [21-40%] 45 $5 94,222 Molnupiravir 31% [7-48%] 15 $707 14,257 mutagenic/teratogenic Zinc 28% [16-39%] 34 $1 36,332 Metformin 27% [22-32%] 47 $10 169,947 Hydroxychlor.. 25% [21-29%] 366 $1 491,544 Probiotics 22% [12-31%] 20 $5 17,944 N-acetylcys.. 22% [10-32%] 14 $1 24,440 Vitamin C 22% [13-30%] 52 $1 57,667 Favipiravir 22% [9-33%] 51 $20 21,221 Famotidine 15% [5-25%] 24 $5 92,235 Remdesivir 14% [5-23%] 42 $3,120 129,784 intravenous Aspirin 12% [6-17%] 54 $1 158,773 Ibuprofen -1% [-10-8%] 12 $1 54,527 Conv. Plasma -12% [-50-16%] 17 $5,000 20,365 Cannabidiol -15% [-114-39%] 5 $25 2,984 Acetaminoph.. -30% [-53--11%] 15 $1 90,633 Bebtelovimab -151% [-6014-90%] 1 $1,200 380 intravenous All studies (pooled effects, all stages) c19early.com Sep 29, 2022 Favors treatment Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Iota-carragee.. 80% 1 very limited data Studies, Improvement Relative Risk Proxalutamide 78% 4 limited data Indomethacin 74% 4 limited data Quercetin 63% 9 Ivermectin 62% 92 Casirivimab/i.. 56% 24 variant dependent Bamlaniv../e.. 55% 14 variant dependent Nigella Sativa 51% 10 Bromhexine 50% 6 very limited data Povidone-Iod.. 49% 17 Diet 49% 17 Lactoferrin 48% 4 Sotrovimab 48% 9 variant dependent Melatonin 47% 17 Ensovibep 46% 2 limited data Vitamin A 46% 9 Nitric Oxide 46% 6 Tixagev../c.. 46% 6 variant dependent Ensitrelvir 45% 1 very limited data Spironolactone 45% 10 Colchicine 41% 36 Exercise 40% 39 Curcumin 39% 21 Vitamin D 36% 93 Nitazoxanide 36% 12 Sleep 35% 8 Peg.. Lambda 35% 3 subcutaneous Paxlovid 35% 16 independent trial refused Fluvoxamine 35% 9 Budesonide 33% 9 Antiandrogens 31% 45 Molnupiravir 31% 15 mutagenic/teratogenic Zinc 28% 34 Metformin 27% 47 Hydroxychlor.. 25% 366 Probiotics 22% 20 N-acetylcys.. 22% 14 Vitamin C 22% 52 Favipiravir 22% 51 Famotidine 15% 24 Remdesivir 14% 42 intravenous Aspirin 12% 54 Ibuprofen -1% 12 Conv. Plasma -12% 17 Cannabidiol -15% 5 Acetaminoph.. -30% 15 Bebtelovimab -151% 1 intravenous All studies (pooled effects, all stages) c19early.com Sep 29, 22 Rotate device for details Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of all studies (pooled effects, all stages). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages and outcomes depend on the distribution of stages and outcomes tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage and outcome analyses. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Ensovibep 89% [-127-99%] 1 $2,100 400 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Budesonide 82% [21-96%] 1 $4 146 very limited data Bromhexine 79% [28-94%] 2 $5 96 very limited data Melatonin 78% [25-94%] 2 $1 91 very limited data Spironolactone 77% [34-92%] 1 $5 270 very limited data Lactoferrin 76% [-485-99%] 1 $5 121 very limited data Proxalutamide 71% [-75-95%] 3 $500 1,175 very limited data Bamlaniv../e.. 69% [40-84%] 8 $1,250 17,980 variant dependent Nigella Sativa 69% [10-89%] 5 $5 1,705 Colchicine 68% [33-85%] 1 $1 0 very limited data Aspirin 67% [-696-99%] 1 $1 280 very limited data Vitamin D 67% [43-81%] 8 $1 43,422 Povidone-Iod.. 67% [47-79%] 11 $1 1,167 limited data Vitamin A 62% [-3-86%] 3 $2 420 limited data Hydroxychlor.. 62% [52-70%] 36 $1 56,721 Ivermectin 62% [51-70%] 37 $1 57,715 Remdesivir 61% [11-83%] 4 $3,120 1,324 intravenous Metformin 58% [23-77%] 3 $10 27,730 limited data Sotrovimab 55% [-40-86%] 8 $2,100 9,765 variant dependent Casirivimab/i.. 51% [28-67%] 18 $2,100 32,170 variant dependent Famotidine 48% [-32-80%] 1 $5 55 very limited data Ensitrelvir 45% [19-63%] 1 $500 28 very limited data Zinc 44% [3-68%] 5 $1 3,748 Antiandrogens 44% [31-55%] 6 $5 28,040 Paxlovid 43% [30-54%] 15 $529 52,052 independent trial refused Nitric Oxide 42% [16-60%] 2 $11 173 limited data Quercetin 38% [-8-65%] 3 $5 244 very limited data Molnupiravir 37% [14-54%] 12 $707 13,966 mutagenic/teratogenic Curcumin 37% [19-52%] 9 $5 1,509 Peg.. Lambda 35% [-132-82%] 3 $500 2,116 subcutaneous Probiotics 34% [22-44%] 4 $5 712 Nitazoxanide 33% [-78-75%] 7 $4 2,469 Favipiravir 32% [-8-57%] 15 $20 11,157 limited data Vitamin C 24% [-50-62%] 5 $1 571 N-acetylcys.. 21% [1-37%] 2 $1 416 very limited data Fluvoxamine 20% [-52-58%] 5 $4 1,529 limited data Tixagev../c.. 0% [-207-68%] 1 $855 903 variant dependent Acetaminoph.. -28% [-178-41%] 2 $1 134 very limited data Conv. Plasma -36% [-317-56%] 5 $5,000 1,508 very limited data Ibuprofen -51% [-351-49%] 2 $1 800 very limited data Bebtelovimab -151% [-6014-90%] 1 $1,200 380 intravenous Early treatment studies (pooled effects) c19early.com Sep 29, 2022 Favors treatment Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Ensovibep 89% 1 very limited data Studies, Improvement Relative Risk Budesonide 82% 1 very limited data Bromhexine 79% 2 very limited data Melatonin 78% 2 very limited data Spironolactone 77% 1 very limited data Lactoferrin 76% 1 very limited data Proxalutamide 71% 3 very limited data Bamlaniv../e.. 69% 8 variant dependent Nigella Sativa 69% 5 Colchicine 68% 1 very limited data Aspirin 67% 1 very limited data Vitamin D 67% 8 Povidone-Iod.. 67% 11 limited data Vitamin A 62% 3 limited data Hydroxychlor.. 62% 36 Ivermectin 62% 37 Remdesivir 61% 4 intravenous Metformin 58% 3 limited data Sotrovimab 55% 8 variant dependent Casirivimab/i.. 51% 18 variant dependent Famotidine 48% 1 very limited data Ensitrelvir 45% 1 very limited data Zinc 44% 5 Antiandrogens 44% 6 Paxlovid 43% 15 independent trial refused Nitric Oxide 42% 2 limited data Quercetin 38% 3 very limited data Molnupiravir 37% 12 mutagenic/teratogenic Curcumin 37% 9 Peg.. Lambda 35% 3 subcutaneous Probiotics 34% 4 Nitazoxanide 33% 7 Favipiravir 32% 15 limited data Vitamin C 24% 5 N-acetylcys.. 21% 2 very limited data Fluvoxamine 20% 5 limited data Tixagev../c.. 0% 1 variant dependent Acetaminoph.. -28% 2 very limited data Conv. Plasma -36% 5 very limited data Ibuprofen -51% 2 very limited data Bebtelovimab -151% 1 intravenous Early treatment studies (pooled effects) c19early.com Sep 29, 22 Rotate device for details Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment studies (pooled effects). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all outcomes are affected by the distribution of outcomes tested, please see detail pages for specific outcome analysis. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Lactoferrin 79% [-48-97%] 1 $5 547 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Proxalutamide 78% [70-83%] 4 $500 1,953 limited data Bromhexine 77% [-39-96%] 3 $5 550 very limited data Nigella Sativa 73% [23-91%] 4 $5 1,192 Povidone-Iod.. 72% [8-92%] 2 $1 872 limited data Peg.. Lambda 72% [-149-97%] 1 $500 1,936 subcutaneous Paxlovid 69% [56-79%] 7 $529 20,927 independent trial refused Sotrovimab 68% [4-89%] 7 $2,100 8,979 variant dependent Vitamin A 63% [-246-96%] 4 $2 267