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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 studies   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Antiandrogens (meta) Melatonin (meta)
Aspirin (meta) Metformin (meta)
Bamlaniv../e.. (meta) Molnupiravir (meta)
Bebtelovimab (meta) N-acetylcys.. (meta)
Bromhexine (meta) Nigella Sativa (meta)
Budesonide (meta) Nitazoxanide (meta)
Cannabidiol (meta) Nitric Oxide (meta)
Casirivimab/i.. (meta) Paxlovid (meta)
Colchicine (meta) Peg.. Lambda (meta)
Conv. Plasma (meta) Povidone-Iod.. (meta)
Curcumin (meta) Probiotics (meta)
Diet (meta) Proxalutamide (meta)
Ensitrelvir (meta) Quercetin (meta)
Ensovibep (meta) Remdesivir (meta)
Exercise (meta) Sleep (meta)
Famotidine (meta) Sotrovimab (meta)
Favipiravir (meta) Tixagev../c.. (meta)
Fluvoxamine (meta) Vitamin A (meta)
Hydroxychlor.. (meta) Vitamin C (meta)
Iota-carragee.. (meta) Vitamin D (meta)
Ivermectin (meta) Zinc (meta)
Lactoferrin (meta)

Other Treatments Global Adoption
COVID-19 early treatment: real-time analysis of 1,978 studies
Analysis of 43 COVID early treatments, approvals in 72 countries, database of 1,267 treatments.  
Treatments do not replace vaccines and other measures. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all variants. Denying efficacy increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage.
Srinivasan
Aspirin meta analysis: 29% lower mortality [p=0.0003]
Shover
1,831 patients cannabidiol prophylaxis PSM: 2% lower mortality [p=0.57], 5% lower ventilation [p=0.02], 9% lower ICU admission [p=0.02], and 3% lower need for oxygen therapy [p=0.27]
Chellasamy
In Silico study of SARS-CoV-1&2 endodomains and ezrin docking, identifying ivermectin, quercetin, calcifediol, calcitriol, selamectin, and..
Yue
Diet: 19% fewer cases [p=0.008]
Rosa
Review of the antiviral activity of lactoferrin and efficacy for SARS-CoV-2.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Iota-carragee.. 80% [11-96%] 1 $1 394 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Proxalutamide 78% [70-83%] 4 $500 1,953 limited data Quercetin 63% [27-81%] 9 $5 1,279 Ivermectin 63% [54-69%] 89 $1 133,038 Nigella Sativa 61% [54-68%] 9 $5 2,161 Casirivimab/i.. 60% [41-72%] 22 $2,100 47,187 variant dependent Bamlaniv../e.. 55% [30-71%] 14 $1,250 24,423 variant dependent Diet 53% [39-64%] 15 $0 586,510 Povidone-Iod.. 50% [37-61%] 16 $1 2,833 Vitamin A 50% [-9-77%] 8 $2 17,951 Bromhexine 50% [-8-77%] 6 $5 684 very limited data Lactoferrin 48% [30-62%] 4 $5 786 Melatonin 47% [31-59%] 17 $1 14,075 Ensovibep 46% [-173-89%] 2 $2,100 885 limited data Nitric Oxide 46% [-4-72%] 6 $11 1,166 Tixagev../c.. 46% [17-64%] 6 $855 21,824 variant dependent Ensitrelvir 45% [19-63%] 1 $500 28 very limited data Paxlovid 40% [24-53%] 12 $529 40,904 independent trial refused Curcumin 40% [31-48%] 19 $5 4,006 Colchicine 40% [29-50%] 34 $1 22,738 Exercise 40% [32-46%] 34 $0 1,464,632 Budesonide 39% [23-52%] 8 $4 9,951 Vitamin D 38% [31-45%] 85 $1 140,678 Fluvoxamine 37% [-1-60%] 8 $4 3,620 Peg.. Lambda 35% [-132-82%] 3 $500 2,116 subcutaneous Sleep 35% [20-48%] 7 $0 1,636 Nitazoxanide 34% [-27-66%] 11 $4 3,025 Molnupiravir 33% [11-51%] 13 $707 15,517 mutagenic/teratogenic Metformin 29% [23-35%] 40 $10 145,044 Favipiravir 29% [17-39%] 45 $20 17,956 Zinc 29% [16-40%] 32 $1 35,459 Antiandrogens 27% [17-35%] 38 $5 89,952 Hydroxychlor.. 25% [21-28%] 351 $1 460,884 N-acetylcys.. 22% [10-32%] 14 $1 24,440 Probiotics 22% [11-31%] 18 $5 17,650 Vitamin C 20% [10-29%] 48 $1 40,882 Remdesivir 16% [6-25%] 38 $3,120 124,717 intravenous Sotrovimab 15% [-57-54%] 7 $2,100 9,907 variant dependent Famotidine 15% [4-25%] 23 $5 76,267 Aspirin 14% [8-19%] 50 $1 132,274 Conv. Plasma -1% [-15-12%] 14 $5,000 15,607 Cannabidiol -26% [-261-56%] 4 $25 2,984 Bebtelovimab -151% [-6014-90%] 1 $1,200 380 intravenous All studies (pooled effects, all stages) c19early.com Aug 12, 2022 Favors treatment Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Iota-carragee.. 80% 1 very limited data Studies, Improvement Relative Risk Proxalutamide 78% 4 limited data Quercetin 63% 9 Ivermectin 63% 89 Nigella Sativa 61% 9 Casirivimab/i.. 60% 22 variant dependent Bamlaniv../e.. 55% 14 variant dependent Diet 53% 15 Povidone-Iod.. 50% 16 Vitamin A 50% 8 Bromhexine 50% 6 very limited data Lactoferrin 48% 4 Melatonin 47% 17 Ensovibep 46% 2 limited data Nitric Oxide 46% 6 Tixagev../c.. 46% 6 variant dependent Ensitrelvir 45% 1 very limited data Paxlovid 40% 12 independent trial refused Curcumin 40% 19 Colchicine 40% 34 Exercise 40% 34 Budesonide 39% 8 Vitamin D 38% 85 Fluvoxamine 37% 8 Peg.. Lambda 35% 3 subcutaneous Sleep 35% 7 Nitazoxanide 34% 11 Molnupiravir 33% 13 mutagenic/teratogenic Metformin 29% 40 Favipiravir 29% 45 Zinc 29% 32 Antiandrogens 27% 38 Hydroxychlor.. 25% 351 N-acetylcys.. 22% 14 Probiotics 22% 18 Vitamin C 20% 48 Remdesivir 16% 38 intravenous Sotrovimab 15% 7 variant dependent Famotidine 15% 23 Aspirin 14% 50 Conv. Plasma -1% 14 Cannabidiol -26% 4 Bebtelovimab -151% 1 intravenous All studies (pooled effects, all stages) c19early.com Aug 12, 22 Rotate device for details Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of all studies (pooled effects, all stages). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages and outcomes depend on the distribution of stages and outcomes tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage and outcome analyses. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Ensovibep 89% [-127-99%] 1 $2,100 400 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Nigella Sativa 83% [51-94%] 4 $5 967 limited data Budesonide 82% [21-96%] 1 $4 146 very limited data Bromhexine 79% [28-94%] 2 $5 96 very limited data Vitamin A 79% [39-93%] 2 $2 240 very limited data Melatonin 78% [25-94%] 2 $1 91 very limited data Lactoferrin 76% [-485-99%] 1 $5 121 very limited data Remdesivir 75% [43-89%] 3 $3,120 1,106 intravenous Proxalutamide 71% [-75-95%] 3 $500 1,175 very limited data Povidone-Iod.. 69% [50-81%] 10 $1 1,143 limited data Bamlaniv../e.. 69% [40-84%] 8 $1,250 17,980 variant dependent Colchicine 68% [33-85%] 1 $1 0 very limited data Aspirin 67% [-696-99%] 1 $1 280 very limited data Vitamin D 67% [43-81%] 8 $1 43,422 Ivermectin 63% [52-71%] 36 $1 56,911 Hydroxychlor.. 62% [52-70%] 36 $1 56,721 Zinc 61% [-16-87%] 4 $1 3,010 limited data Metformin 57% [11-79%] 2 $10 26,926 limited data Casirivimab/i.. 56% [32-72%] 16 $2,100 31,188 variant dependent Antiandrogens 55% [23-74%] 3 $5 26,865 limited data Famotidine 48% [-32-80%] 1 $5 55 very limited data Curcumin 46% [14-66%] 8 $5 771 limited data Ensitrelvir 45% [19-63%] 1 $500 28 very limited data Paxlovid 45% [25-59%] 10 $529 34,082 independent trial refused Molnupiravir 43% [10-64%] 9 $707 4,714 mutagenic/teratogenic Nitric Oxide 42% [16-60%] 2 $11 173 limited data Favipiravir 41% [11-61%] 13 $20 9,970 limited data Fluvoxamine 39% [-64-78%] 4 $4 876 very limited data Quercetin 38% [-8-65%] 3 $5 244 very limited data Sotrovimab 37% [-69-77%] 6 $2,100 9,547 variant dependent Peg.. Lambda 35% [-132-82%] 3 $500 2,116 subcutaneous Probiotics 34% [21-45%] 3 $5 673 limited data Nitazoxanide 33% [-78-75%] 7 $4 2,469 Vitamin C 24% [-50-62%] 5 $1 571 N-acetylcys.. 21% [1-37%] 2 $1 416 very limited data Tixagev../c.. 0% [-207-68%] 1 $855 903 variant dependent Conv. Plasma -93% [-687-53%] 3 $5,000 716 very limited data Bebtelovimab -151% [-6014-90%] 1 $1,200 380 intravenous Early treatment studies (pooled effects) c19early.com Aug 12, 2022 Favors treatment Favors control
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Ensovibep 89% 1 very limited data Studies, Improvement Relative Risk Nigella Sativa 83% 4 limited data Budesonide 82% 1 very limited data Bromhexine 79% 2 very limited data Vitamin A 79% 2 very limited data Melatonin 78% 2 very limited data Lactoferrin 76% 1 very limited data Remdesivir 75% 3 intravenous Proxalutamide 71% 3 very limited data Povidone-Iod.. 69% 10 limited data Bamlaniv../e.. 69% 8 variant dependent Colchicine 68% 1 very limited data Aspirin 67% 1 very limited data Vitamin D 67% 8 Ivermectin 63% 36 Hydroxychlor.. 62% 36 Zinc 61% 4 limited data Metformin 57% 2 limited data Casirivimab/i.. 56% 16 variant dependent Antiandrogens 55% 3 limited data Famotidine 48% 1 very limited data Curcumin 46% 8 limited data Ensitrelvir 45% 1 very limited data Paxlovid 45% 10 independent trial refused Molnupiravir 43% 9 mutagenic/teratogenic Nitric Oxide 42% 2 limited data Favipiravir 41% 13 limited data Fluvoxamine 39% 4 very limited data Quercetin 38% 3 very limited data Sotrovimab 37% 6 variant dependent Peg.. Lambda 35% 3 subcutaneous Probiotics 34% 3 limited data Nitazoxanide 33% 7 Vitamin C 24% 5 N-acetylcys.. 21% 2 very limited data Tixagev../c.. 0% 1 variant dependent Conv. Plasma -93% 3 very limited data Bebtelovimab -151% 1 intravenous Early treatment studies (pooled effects) c19early.com Aug 12, 22 Rotate device for details Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment studies (pooled effects). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all outcomes are affected by the distribution of outcomes tested, please see detail pages for specific outcome analysis. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Lactoferrin 79% [-48-97%] 1 $5 547 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Proxalutamide 78% [70-83%] 4 $500 1,953 limited data Bromhexine 77% [-39-96%] 3 $5 550 very limited data Nigella Sativa 73% [23-91%] 4 $5 1,192 Povidone-Iod.. 72% [8-92%] 2 $1 872 limited data Peg.. Lambda 72% [-149-97%] 1 $500 1,936 subcutaneous Paxlovid 64% [7-86%] 5 $529 8,173 independent trial refused Vitamin A 63% [-246-96%] 4 $2 267 Curcumin 61% [29-79%] 6 $5 605 Probiotics 61% [34-77%] 7 $5 1,004 Quercetin 59% [-55-89%] 4 $5 683 limited data Bamlaniv../e.. 56% [5-80%] 10 $1,250 22,988 variant dependent Melatonin 54% [26-72%] 8 $1 1,828 Casirivimab/i.. 53% [15-74%] 8 $2,100 32,929 variant dependent Ivermectin 51% [37-62%] 46 $1 119,844 Ensovibep 46% [-173-89%] 2 $2,100 885 limited data Exercise 44% [34-52%] 13 $0 1,437,929 Molnupiravir 43% [16-62%] 5 $707 13,003 mutagenic/teratogenic Sleep 43% [10-64%] 1 $0 0 very limited data Colchicine 42% [28-53%] 29 $1 21,010 Tixagev../c.. 41% [6-63%] 4 $855 15,579 variant dependent Nitazoxanide 41% [-30-73%] 5 $4