Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin D

Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin A  COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin A  C19 studies: Vitamin A  Vitamin A   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Aspirin Metformin
Bamlanivimab Molnupiravir
Bromhexine Nigella Sativa
Budesonide Nitazoxanide
Casirivimab/i.. Povidone-Iod..
Colchicine Probiotics
Conv. Plasma Proxalutamide
Curcumin Quercetin
Favipiravir Remdesivir
Fluvoxamine Sotrovimab
Hydroxychloro.. Vitamin A
Iota-carragee.. Vitamin C
Ivermectin Vitamin D
Melatonin Zinc

Other Adoption [0.03-0.61]death2/7014/70Improvement, RR [CI]TreatmentControlAl-Sumiadai67%0.33 [0.07-1.57]progression2/506/50Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%Early treatment79%0.21 [0.07-0.61]4/12020/12079% improvementSarohan-282%3.83 [1.58-9.24]death9/104/17Improvement, RR [CI]TreatmentControlTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%Late treatment-282%3.83 [1.58-9.24]9/104/17-282% improvementAl-Sumiadai64%0.36 [0.23-0.54]cases20/9765/112Improvement, RR [CI]TreatmentControlTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%PEP64%0.36 [0.23-0.54]20/9765/11264% improvementTomasa-Irriguible71%0.29 [0.10-0.67]ventilation4/3448/86Improvement, RR [CI]TreatmentControlTepasse70%0.30 [0.07-0.97]death4/295/11Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%Sufficiency71%0.29 [0.14-0.60]8/6353/9771% improvementAll studies55%0.45 [0.18-1.10]41/290142/34655% improvement6 vitamin A COVID-19 Oct 16, 2021Tau​2 = 0.97; I​2 = 82.0%; Z = 1.75Effect extraction pre-specifiedFavors vitamin AFavors control
Database of all vitamin A COVID-19 studies. Submit updates/corrections.
Jun 24
Levels Tepasse et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13072173 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓69.7%, p=0.04 Vitamin A Plasma Levels in COVID-19 Patients: A Prospective Multicenter Study and Hypothesis
Details   Prospective analysis of 40 hospitalized patients and 47 age-matched convalescent patients, showing significantly lower vitamin A levels in critical patients, and significantly lower vitamin A levels in hospitalized patients vs. controls. ..
Feb 1
Late Sarohan et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.30.21250844 (Preprint) death, ↑282.5%, p=0.001 Retinol Depletion in Severe COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 27 severe COVID-19 patients and 23 non-COVID-19 patients, showing signifcantly lower vitamin A levels in COVID-19 patients (0.37mg/L vs. 0.52 mg/L, p<0.001). 10 of 27 COVID-19 patients received vitamin A, with higher mortali..
Jan 31
Early Al-Sumiadai, Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 12:1 (Preprint) progression, ↓66.7%, p=0.27 Therapeutic effect of vitamin A on COVID-19 patients and its prophylactic effect on contacts
Details   Treatment and prophylaxis studies of vitamin A in Iraq. The treatment study contained 100 patients, 50 treated with 200,000IU vitamin A for two days, showing lower progression to severe disease, and shorter duration of symptoms. The pro..
Jan 20
Review Stephensen et al., British Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1017/S0007114521000246 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Vitamin A in resistance to and recovery from infection: relevance to SARS-CoV2
Details   Review of the potential benefits of vitamin A for COVID-19, including maintaining innate and adaptive immunity, minimizing inflammation, supporting repair of respiratory epithelium and preventing fibrosis, and counteracting adverse effect..
Dec 31
Early Al-Sumiadai et al., EurAsian Journal of Biosciences, 14:7347-7350 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓85.7%, p=0.002 Therapeutic effect of Vitamin A on severe COVID-19 patients
Details   Retrospective 70 severe condition patients treated with vitamin A (200,000IU for two days), salbutamol, and budesonide, and 70 patients not treated with vitamin A, showing significantly lower mortality with the addition of vitamin A.
Dec 31
Review Midha et al., Reviews in Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/rmv.2204 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Mega doses of retinol: A possible immunomodulation in Covid-19 illness in resource-limited settings
Details   Review of the potential benefits of vitamin A for COVID-19, including the effect of vitamin A on ACE2 expression in the respiratory tract, potentially improving the generation of protective immune responses to vaccines, and dosage and saf..
Oct 26
Levels Tomasa-Irriguible et al., Metabolites, doi:10.3390/metabo11090565 (preprint 10/26/2020) (Peer Reviewed) ventilation, ↓71.4%, p=0.001 Low Levels of Few Micronutrients May Impact COVID-19 Disease Progression: An Observational Study on the First Wave
Details   Retrospective 120 hospitalized patients in Spain showing vitamin A deficiency associated with higher ICU admission.
Aug 15
In Silico Li et al., Aging, doi:10.18632/aging.103888 (Peer Reviewed) Revealing the targets and mechanisms of vitamin A in the treatment of COVID-19
Details   Bioinformatics and network pharmacology analysis identifying potential mechanisms of action of vitamin A for COVID-19.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
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Thanks for your feedback! Please search before submitting papers and note that studies are listed under the date they were first available, which may be the date of an earlier preprint.