Antiandrogens
Aspirin
Bamlanivimab
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Casirivimab/i..
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychloro..
Iota-carragee..
Ivermectin
Melatonin
Metformin
Molnupiravir
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Povidone-Iod..
Probiotics
Proxalutamide
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Sotrovimab
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Zinc

Other
Feedback
Home
Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin A  COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin A  C19 studies: Vitamin A  Vitamin A   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Antiandrogens (meta) Metformin (meta)
Aspirin (meta) Molnupiravir (meta)
Bamlanivimab (meta) Nigella Sativa (meta)
Bromhexine (meta) Nitazoxanide (meta)
Budesonide (meta) Paxlovid (meta)
Casirivimab/i.. (meta) Povidone-Iod.. (meta)
Colchicine (meta) Probiotics (meta)
Conv. Plasma (meta) Proxalutamide (meta)
Curcumin (meta) Quercetin (meta)
Favipiravir (meta) Remdesivir (meta)
Fluvoxamine (meta) Sotrovimab (meta)
Hydroxychloro.. (meta) Vitamin A (meta)
Iota-carragee.. (meta) Vitamin C (meta)
Ivermectin (meta) Vitamin D (meta)
Melatonin (meta) Zinc (meta)

Other Treatments Global Adoption
 
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Al-Sumiadai 86% 0.14 [0.03-0.61] death 2/70 14/70 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Al-Sumiadai 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.57] progression 2/50 6/50 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Early treatment 79% 0.21 [0.07-0.61] 4/120 20/120 79% improvement Sarohan -282% 3.83 [1.58-9.24] death 9/10 4/17 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Late treatment -282% 3.83 [1.58-9.24] 9/10 4/17 -282% improvement Al-Sumiadai 64% 0.36 [0.23-0.54] cases 20/97 65/112 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Holt 56% 0.44 [0.06-2.96] cases 1/91 445/15,136 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Prophylaxis 64% 0.36 [0.24-0.54] 21/188 510/15,248 64% improvement Tomasa-Irriguible 71% 0.29 [0.10-0.67] ventilation 4/34 48/86 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tepasse 70% 0.30 [0.07-0.97] death 4/29 5/11 Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0% Sufficiency 71% 0.29 [0.14-0.60] 8/63 53/97 71% improvement All studies 55% 0.45 [0.20-1.02] 42/381 587/15,482 55% improvement 7 vitamin A COVID-19 studies c19early.com/va Dec 5, 2021 Tau​2 = 0.88; I​2 = 78.4%; Z = 1.91 Effect extraction pre-specified Favors vitamin A Favors control
Database of all vitamin A COVID-19 studies. Submit updates/corrections.
 
Search:  
Restrict:    All    Early    Late    PrEP    Levels
Aug 23
In Vitro Morita et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13081669 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
in vitro
All-Trans Retinoic Acid Exhibits Antiviral Effect against SARS-CoV-2 by Inhibiting 3CLpro Activity
Details   In Vitro and In Silico study showing that all-trans retinoic acid is a potent SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells, and is effective against alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variants in Calu-3 ..
Jun 24
Levels Tepasse et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13072173 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓69.7%, p=0.04
Vitamin A Plasma Levels in COVID-19 Patients: A Prospective Multicenter Study and Hypothesis
Details   Prospective analysis of 40 hospitalized patients and 47 age-matched convalescent patients, showing significantly lower vitamin A levels in critical patients, and significantly lower vitamin A levels in hospitalized patients vs. controls. ..
Mar 30
PrEPPEP Holt et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.27.21254452 (Preprint)
cases, ↓56.3%, p=0.41
Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
Details   Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistica..
Feb 1
Levels Muhammad et al., SAGE Open Medicine, doi:10.1177/2050312121991246 (Peer Reviewed) Deficiency of antioxidants and increased oxidative stress in COVID-19 patients: A cross-sectional comparative study in Jigawa, Northwestern Nigeria
Details   Case control study with 50 symptomatic COVID-19 patients and 21 healthy controls in Nigeria, showing that COVID-19 patients had significantly lower levels of selenium and zinc, and vitamins A, C, and E. Control patients were younger than ..
Feb 1
Late Sarohan et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.30.21250844 (Preprint)
death, ↑282.5%, p=0.001
Retinol Depletion in Severe COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 27 severe COVID-19 patients and 23 non-COVID-19 patients, showing signifcantly lower vitamin A levels in COVID-19 patients (0.37mg/L vs. 0.52 mg/L, p<0.001). 10 of 27 COVID-19 patients received vitamin A, with higher mortali..
Jan 31
Early Al-Sumiadai, Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 12:1 (Preprint)
progression, ↓66.7%, p=0.27
Therapeutic effect of vitamin A on COVID-19 patients and its prophylactic effect on contacts
Details   Treatment and prophylaxis studies of vitamin A in Iraq. The treatment study contained 100 patients, 50 treated with 200,000IU vitamin A for two days, showing lower progression to severe disease, and shorter duration of symptoms. The pro..
Jan 20
Review Stephensen et al., British Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1017/S0007114521000246 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
Vitamin A in resistance to and recovery from infection: relevance to SARS-CoV2
Details   Review of the potential benefits of vitamin A for COVID-19, including maintaining innate and adaptive immunity, minimizing inflammation, supporting repair of respiratory epithelium and preventing fibrosis, and counteracting adverse effect..
Dec 31
2020
Early Al-Sumiadai et al., EurAsian Journal of Biosciences, 14:7347-7350 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓85.7%, p=0.002
Therapeutic effect of Vitamin A on severe COVID-19 patients
Details   Retrospective 70 severe condition patients treated with vitamin A (200,000IU for two days), salbutamol, and budesonide, and 70 patients not treated with vitamin A, showing significantly lower mortality with the addition of vitamin A.
Dec 31
2020
Review Midha et al., Reviews in Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/rmv.2204 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
Mega doses of retinol: A possible immunomodulation in Covid-19 illness in resource-limited settings
Details   Review of the potential benefits of vitamin A for COVID-19, including the effect of vitamin A on ACE2 expression in the respiratory tract, potentially improving the generation of protective immune responses to vaccines, and dosage and saf..
Oct 26
2020
Levels Tomasa-Irriguible et al., Metabolites, doi:10.3390/metabo11090565 (preprint 10/26/2020) (Peer Reviewed)
ventilation, ↓71.4%, p=0.001
Low Levels of Few Micronutrients May Impact COVID-19 Disease Progression: An Observational Study on the First Wave
Details   Retrospective 120 hospitalized patients in Spain showing vitamin A deficiency associated with higher ICU admission.
Aug 15
2020
In Silico Li et al., Aging, doi:10.18632/aging.103888 (Peer Reviewed) Revealing the targets and mechanisms of vitamin A in the treatment of COVID-19
Details   Bioinformatics and network pharmacology analysis identifying potential mechanisms of action of vitamin A for COVID-19.
Jun 24
2020
Review Andrade et al., SciELO preprints, doi:10.1590/SciELOPreprints.839 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
Vitamin A and D deficiencies in the prognosis of respiratory tract infections: A systematic review with perspectives for COVID-19 and a critical analysis on supplementation
Details   Systematic review showing deficiencies of vitamins A and D negatively affecting the prognosis of respiratory tract infections.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
  or use drag and drop   
Thanks for your feedback! Please search before submitting papers and note that studies are listed under the date they were first available, which may be the date of an earlier preprint.
Submit