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Other Treatments Global Adoption
 
Lactoferrin COVID-19 studies. Recent:
Rosa
Piacentini
Cutone.
Lactoferrin has been officially adopted for early treatment in 1 country. Submit updates/corrections.
Sep 20
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
Lactoferrin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 4 studies
Details   • Statistically significant improvement is seen for viral clearance. 2 studies from 2 independent teams (both from the same country) show statistically significant improvements in isolation (1 for the most serious outcome). • Meta analysi..
Aug 3
Review Rosa et al., BioMetals, doi:10.1007/s10534-022-00427-z (Review)
review
An overview on in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity of lactoferrin: its efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 infection
Details   Review of the antiviral activity of lactoferrin and efficacy for SARS-CoV-2.
May 17
In Vitro Cutone et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1605740/v1 (Preprint) (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Lactoferrin binding to Sars-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein protects host from infection, inflammation and iron dysregulation.
Details   Vero E6, Caco-2, and THP-1 In Vitro study showing lactoferrin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirus. Nutraceutically available bovine lactoferrin was more effective than human lactoferrin.
May 13
In Vitro Piacentini et al., International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms23105436 (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Lactoferrin Inhibition of the Complex Formation between ACE2 Receptor and SARS CoV-2 Recognition Binding Domain
Details   Biolayer interferometry and turbidimetry study showing lactoferrin inhibits ACE2 - SARS-CoV-2 RBD binding.
Nov 20
2021
In Vitro Ostrov et al., Pathogens, doi:10.3390/pathogens10111514 (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Highly Specific Sigma Receptor Ligands Exhibit Anti-Viral Properties in SARS-CoV-2 Infected Cells
Details   Vero E6 and H23 In Vitro study finding SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity associated with agonism of the sigma-1 receptor, ligation of the sigma-2 receptor, and a combination of the two. Authors identify synergistic effects with the combinatio..
Oct 28
2021
Late Shousha et al., World Journal of Gastroenterology, doi:10.3748/wjg.v27.i40.6951
death, ↓79.1%, p=0.11
Hepatic and gastrointestinal disturbances in Egyptian patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019: A multicentre cohort study
Details   Retrospective 547 hospitalized COVID+ patients in Egypt, showing lower mortality with lactoferrin treatment (without statistical significance).
Oct 19
2021
Late Campione et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph182010985
viral- time, ↓47.5%, p<0.0001
Lactoferrin as Antiviral Treatment in COVID-19 Management: Preliminary Evidence
Details   Small prospective study in Italy with 32 lactoferrin patients, 32 SOC, and 28 patients with no treatment, showing significantly faster viral clearance and improved recovery with treatment. Oral and intranasal lactoferrin.
Sep 21
2021
Early Rosa et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10184276
hosp., ↓75.6%, p=0.32
Ambulatory COVID-19 Patients Treated with Lactoferrin as a Supplementary Antiviral Agent: A Preliminary Study
Details   Retrospective survey based study in Italy with 82 patients treated with lactoferrin, and 39 control patients, showing significantly faster viral clearance with treatment. There was no significant difference in recovery time overall, howev..
Sep 3
2021
Meta Ali et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.08.019
meta-analysis
Lactoferrin reduces the risk of respiratory tract infections: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Details   Meta analysis of 6 RCTs, showing lower risk of respiratory tract infections with lactoferrin.
Aug 19
2021
In Vitro Mirabelli et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.2105815118 (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Morphological cell profiling of SARS-CoV-2 infection identifies drug repurposing candidates for COVID-19
Details   In Vitro study testing 1,425 compounds for SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity, identifying 17 dose-responsive compounds with IC50 values <1μM. Lactoferrin inhibited SARS-CoV-2 in the nanomolar range in all cell models with multiple modes of ac..
Aug 19
2021
Late Algahtani et al., Medicina, doi:10.3390/medicina57080842
no recov., ↓25.0%, p=1.00
The Prospect of Lactoferrin Use as Adjunctive Agent in Management of SARS-CoV-2 Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study
Details   RCT 54 hospitalized patients in Egypt, showing no significant differences in recovery with lactoferrin treatment. 200mg lactoferrin orally once daily (group 1) or 200mg lactoferrin orally twice daily (group 2).
Apr 14
2021
Review Mattar et al., PeerJ, doi:10.7717/peerj.11303 (Review)
review
Natural resources to control COVID-19: could lactoferrin amend SARS-CoV-2 infectivity?
Details   Review of the mechanisms of action and evidence for beneficial effects of lactoferrin for COVID-19.
Feb 15
2021
In Silico Miotto et al., Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, doi:10.3389/fmolb.2021.607443
In Silico
Molecular Mechanisms Behind Anti SARS-CoV-2 Action of Lactoferrin
Details   In Silico study of possible molecular mechanisms for anti-SARS-CoV-2 action of lactoferrin.
Jan 23
2021
In Vitro Salaris et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13020328 (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Protective Effects of Lactoferrin against SARS-CoV-2 Infection In Vitro
Details   Caco-2 and Vero E6 In Vitro study showing lactoferrin enhances the antiviral immune response, partially inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, and modulates cytokine production.
Sep 30
2020
Review Chang et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106118 (Review)
review
Lactoferrin as potential preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19
Details   Review of the antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects of lactoferrin and the potential benefit for COVID-19.
Jul 11
2020
Review Campione et al., International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms21144903 (Review)
review
Lactoferrin as Protective Natural Barrier of Respiratory and Intestinal Mucosa against Coronavirus Infection and Inflammation
Details   Review of the mechanisms of action and potential benefits of lactoferrin for COVID-19. Authors propose designing a trial combining an intranasal spray and oral administration (which they later performed).
Apr 1
2020
Early Serrano et al., International Journal of Research in Health Sciences, doi:10.5530/ijrhs.8.1.3 Liposomal Lactoferrin as Potential Preventative and Cure for COVID-19
Details   Prospective study of treatment with lactoferrin, vitamin C, and zinc, reporting recovery for all patients within 5 days. Depending on symptoms, lactoferrin nasal drops, mouth spray, or nebulization was also used.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases mortality, morbidity, collateral damage, and the risk of endemic status. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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