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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -1% Improvement Relative Risk c19vitaminc.com Gadhiya et al. Vitamin C for COVID-19 LATE TREATMENT Favors vitamin C Favors control
Gadhiya, 281 patient vitamin C late treatment study: 1% higher mortality [p=0.99] https://c19p.org/gadhiyac
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Clinical characteristics of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and the impact on mortality: a single-network, retrospective cohort study from Pennsylvania state
Gadhiya et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042549
8 Apr 2021    Source   PDF   Share   Tweet
Retrospective 283 patients in the USA showing higher mortality with all treatments (not statistically significant). Confounding by indication is likely. In the supplementary appendix, authors note that the treatments were usually given for patients that required oxygen therapy. Oxygen therapy and ICU admission (possibly, the paper includes ICU admission for model 2 in some places but not others) were the only variables indicating severity used in adjustments.
risk of death, 0.7% higher, RR 1.01, p = 0.98, treatment 19 of 55 (34.5%), control 36 of 226 (15.9%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariate logistic regression.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
Gadhiya et al., 8 Apr 2021, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
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