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Exercise COVID-19 studies. Studies analyze exercise/physical activity levels before infection, comparing regular/moderate exercise vs. lower/no exercise. Note that risk may increase with more extreme activity levels. Recent:
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May 20
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Exercise for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 33 studies
Details   • Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality, ventilation, ICU admission, hospitalization, recovery, and cases. 26 studies from 26 independent teams in 14 different countries show statistically significant improvements ..
May 13
PrEPPEP Chen et al., Journal of Translational Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12967-022-03407-6 Causal relationship between physical activity, leisure sedentary behaviors and COVID-19 risk: a Mendelian randomization study
Details   UK Biobank Mendelian randomization study showing decreased risk of COVID-19 hospitalization with genetically predicted accelerometer-assessed physical activity, and increased risk with television watching.
Apr 17
PrEPPEP Kontopoulou et al., Journal of Personalized Medicine, doi:10.3390/jpm12040645
recov. time, ↓66.2%, p<0.0001
Exercise Preferences and Benefits in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 66 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Greece, showing significantly improved recovery with a history of exercise in unadjusted results. Exercise after hospitalization was also associated with lower levels of dyspnea one month..
Apr 13
PrEPPEP Paul et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.04.12.22273792 (Preprint)
no recov., ↓38.1%, p=0.16
Health behaviours the month prior to COVID-19 infection and the development of self-reported long COVID and specific long COVID symptoms: A longitudinal analysis of 1,811 UK adults
Details   Retrospective 1,811 COVID-19 patients in the UK, showing lower risk of self-reported long COVID with 3+ hours of exercise per week in the month before infection, without statistical significance (p=0.16).
Apr 13
Meta Rahmati et al., Reviews in Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/rmv.2349 (meta analysis)
death, ↓53.0%, p=0.001
Baseline physical activity is associated with reduced mortality and disease outcomes in COVID‐19: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
Details   Meta analysis of 12 physical activity and COVID-19 studies, showing lower mortality, ICU admission, and hospitalization with physical activity.
Mar 14
PrEPPEP Salgado-Aranda et al., Infectious Diseases and Therapy, doi:10.1007/s40121-021-00418-6
death, ↓83.1%, p=0.003
Influence of Baseline Physical Activity as a Modifying Factor on COVID-19 Mortality: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study
Details   Retrospective 520 COVID-19 patients in Spain, showing significantly lower mortality with a history of physical activity.
Mar 12
PrEPPEP Beydoun et al., American Journal of Infection Control, doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2022.02.021
cases, ↓43.0%, p=0.05
Socio-demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics as predictors of self-reported Covid-19 history among older adults: 2006-2020 Health and Retirement Study
Details   Retrospective 2,830 people in the USA, showing lower risk of COVID-19 with a history of moderate/vigorous exercise.
Feb 10
PrEPPEP Gilley et al., JMIR Mental Health, doi:10.2196/34645
cases, ↑41.8%, p=0.55
Risk Factors for COVID-19 in College Students Identified by Physical, Mental, and Social Health Reported During the Fall 2020 Semester: Observational Study Using the Roadmap App and Fitbit Wearable Sensors
Details   Retrospective survey of 1,997 college students in the USA, showing no significant difference in COVID-19 cases with exercise in unadjusted results.
Feb 9
PrEPPEP Steenkamp et al., British Journal of Sports Medicine, doi:10.1136/bjsports-2021-105159
death, ↓42.0%, p<0.0001
Small steps, strong shield: directly measured, moderate physical activity in 65 361 adults is associated with significant protective effects from severe COVID-19 outcomes
Details   Retrospective 65,361 COVID-19 patients in South Africa, showing significantly lower ICU admission, ventilation, and mortality with exercise.
Nov 30
PrEPPEP Huang et al., Nature and Science of Sleep, doi:10.2147/NSS.S263488
severe case, ↓46.8%, p=0.18
Reduced Sleep in the Week Prior to Diagnosis of COVID-19 is Associated with the Severity of COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 164 COVID-19 patients and 188 controls in China, showing lower risk of cases with regular exercise.
Nov 3
PrEPPEP Hamrouni et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055003
death, ↓29.0%, p=0.009
Associations of obesity, physical activity level, inflammation and cardiometabolic health with COVID-19 mortality: a prospective analysis of the UK Biobank cohort
Details   Prospective UK Biobank analysis, showing a history of low physical activity associated with COVID-19 mortality.
Oct 30
PrEPPEP Saadeh et al., Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, doi:10.1007/s40520-021-02006-7
symp. case, ↓9.1%, p=0.71
Associations of pre-pandemic levels of physical function and physical activity with COVID-19-like symptoms during the outbreak
Details   Retrospective 904 patients in Sweden, showing higher risk of COVID-19-like symptoms with poor muscle strength. Risk was slightly higher for physical inactivity, without statistical significance.
Oct 23
PrEPPEP Lengelé et al., Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, doi:10.1007/s40520-021-01991-z
cases, ↓73.6%, p=0.03
Frailty but not sarcopenia nor malnutrition increases the risk of developing COVID-19 in older community-dwelling adults
Details   Analysis of 241 adults >65yo in Belgium, showing lower risk of COVID-19 with a history of physical activity.
Oct 19
PrEPPEP Ekblom-Bak et al., International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, doi:10.1186/s12966-021-01198-5
severe case, ↓47.6%, p=0.02
Cardiorespiratory fitness and lifestyle on severe COVID-19 risk in 279,455 adults: a case control study
Details   Retrospective 857 severe COVID-19 cases and matched controls in Sweden, showing lower risk of severe COVID-19 with higher cardiorespiratory fitness.
Sep 30
PrEPPEP Mohsin et al., Infection and Drug Resistance, doi:10.2147/IDR.S331470
severe case, ↓19.0%, p=0.04
Lifestyle and Comorbidity-Related Risk Factors of Severe and Critical COVID-19 Infection: A Comparative Study Among Survived COVID-19 Patients in Bangladesh
Details   Retrospective 1,500 COVID+ patients in Bangladesh, showing lower risk of severe cases with regular exercise in unadjusted results.
Sep 30
PrEPPEP de Souza et al., Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2021.05.011
ventilation, ↓73.2%, p=0.07
Association of physical activity levels and the prevalence of COVID-19-associated hospitalization
Details   Retrospective survey of 938 COVID-19 recovered patients in Brazil, showing lower hospitalization with physical activity. NCT04396353.
Sep 22
PrEPPEP Ehsani et al., Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Studies, doi:10.5812/mejrh.114607
recov. time, ↓61.1%, p<0.0001
Evaluation of the Relationship Between Daily Physical Activity Level and Laboratory Factors and the Length of Hospitalization in Patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 71 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing faster recovery with a history of moderate to high physical exercise. Exercise was assessed during the last seven days when patients may already have had COVID-19 symptoms. ..
Sep 21
PrEPPEP Lin et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052025
cases, ↓47.4%, p=0.40
Predictors of incident SARS-CoV-2 infections in an international prospective cohort study
Details   Prospective survey analysis of 28,575 people in 99 countries, showing a lower risk of COVID-19 with a exercise, without statistical signifcance.
Sep 18
PrEPPEP Nguyen et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13093258
symp. case, ↓20.3%, p<0.0001
Single and Combinative Impacts of Healthy Eating Behavior and Physical Activity on COVID-19-like Symptoms among Outpatients: A Multi-Hospital and Health Center Survey
Details   Analysis of 3,947 participants in Vietnam, showing significantly lower risk of COVID-19-like symptoms with physical activity and with a healthy diet. The combination of being physically active and eating healthy reduced risk further compa..
Aug 31
PrEPPEP Ahmadi et al., Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2021.04.022
death, ↓30.0%, p=0.005
Lifestyle risk factors and infectious disease mortality, including COVID-19, among middle aged and older adults: Evidence from a community-based cohort study in the United Kingdom
Details   Retrospective 468,569 adults in the UK, showing no significant difference in COVID-19 mortality based on diet quality, however significantly lower mortality was seen with higher diet quality for pneumonia and infectious diseases.
Aug 23
PrEPPEP Baynouna AlKetbi et al., Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, doi:10.1007/s44197-021-00006-4
death, ↓98.5%, p=0.049
Risk Factors for SARS-CoV-2 Infection Severity in Abu Dhabi
Details   Retrospective 234 COVID-19 cases in the United Arab Emirates, showing lower risk of mortality with increased physical activity.
Aug 11
PrEPPEP Maltagliati et al., Journal of Sports Sciences, doi:10.1080/02640414.2021.1964721
hosp., ↓52.0%, p=0.02
Muscle strength explains the protective effect of physical activity against COVID-19 hospitalization among adults aged 50 years and older
Details   Retrospective 3,139 adults >50 in Europe, with 66 COVID-19 hospitalizations, showing lower risk of hospitalization with higher physical activity and with higher muscle strength. Note that model 2 includes muscle strength which is correlat..
Jul 22
PrEPPEP Lee et al., British Journal of Sports Medicine, doi:10.1136/bjsports-2021-104203
death, ↓74.0%, p=0.046
Physical activity and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related mortality in South Korea: a nationwide cohort study
Details   Retrospective 212,768 adults in South Korea, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases, severity, and mortality with physical activity. Notably, results for aerobic and muscle strengthening activities combined were much better than results for..
Jul 9
Early Rabail et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.2458 Nutritional and lifestyle changes required for minimizing the recovery period in home quarantined COVID-19 patients of Punjab, Pakistan
Details   Survey of 80 recovered COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, showing faster recovery with higher physical activity before infection.
Jul 5
N/A Buckley et al., European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, doi:10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa135
death, ↓75.8%, p<0.0001
Exercise rehabilitation associates with lower mortality and hospitalisation in cardiovascular disease patients with COVID-19
Details   PSM retrospective 643 COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease undergoing exercise rehabilitation within 3 months of diagnosis, showing significantly lower re-hospitalization and mortality with exercise rehabilitation.
Jul 4
PrEPPEP Bielik et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18137158
mod. case, ↓30.4%, p=0.10
A Possible Preventive Role of Physically Active Lifestyle during the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic; Might Regular Cold-Water Swimming and Exercise Reduce the Symptom Severity of COVID-19?
Details   Retrospective 1,544 participants in Slovakia, showing a lower risk of more severe COVID-19 for physically active participants, without statistical significance.
Jul 1
PrEPPEP Brandenburg et al., Journal of Physical Activity and Health, doi:10.1123/jpah.2020-0817
hosp., ↑6.0%, p=0.60
Does Higher Self-Reported Cardiorespiratory Fitness Reduce the Odds of Hospitalization From COVID-19?
Details   Retrospective 263 COVID+ patients, showing lower hospitalization with higher self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness, but no significant differences for physical activity. Participants in the study were healthier and more fit than the gen..
Jun 20
PrEPPEP Yuan et al., Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease, doi:10.1177/17534666211025221
death, ↓90.5%, p=0.09
Does pre-existent physical inactivity have a role in the severity of COVID-19?
Details   Retrospective 164 COVID-19 patients in China, showing physical inactivity associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19.
Jun 17
PrEPPEP Marcus et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0253120
symp. case, ↓42.1%, p<0.0001
Predictors of incident viral symptoms ascertained in the era of COVID-19
Details   Prospective survey based study with 14,335 participants, showing lower risk of viral symptoms with regular exercise.
Jun 15
PrEPPEP Latorre-Román et al., Research in Sports Medicine, doi:10.1080/15438627.2021.1937166
hosp., ↓76.0%, p=0.05
Protective role of physical activity patterns prior to COVID-19 confinement with the severity/duration of respiratory pathologies consistent with COVID-19 symptoms in Spanish populations
Details   Retrospective 420 people in Spain, showing lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization with a history of physical activity.
May 5
PrEPPEP Christensen et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0250508
death, ↓63.0%, p=0.02
The association of estimated cardiorespiratory fitness with COVID-19 incidence and mortality: A cohort study
Details   Prospective study of 2,690 adults in the UK Biobank showing lower cardiorespiritory fitness associated with COVID-19 mortality.
Apr 13
PrEPPEP Sallis et al., British Journal of Sports Medicine, doi:10.1136/bjsports-2021-104080
death, ↓59.2%, p=0.005
Physical inactivity is associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes: a study in 48 440 adult patients
Details   Retrospective 48,440 COVID-19 patients in the USA, showing significantly lower mortality, ICU admission, and hospitalization with exercise.
Apr 6
PrEPPEP Cho et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10071539
death, ↓53.0%, p=0.01
Physical Activity and the Risk of COVID-19 Infection and Mortality: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study
Details   Retrospective 6,288 COVID+ patients and 125,772 matched controls in South Korea, showing significantly lower risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality with higher physical activity.
Mar 30
PrEPPEP Holt et al., Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-217487
cases, ↓17.0%, p=0.18
Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
Details   Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing reduced risk of COVID-19 cases with lower impact physical activity. NCT04330599. COVIDENCE UK.
Feb 26
PrEPPEP Yates et al., International Journal of Obesity, doi:10.1038/s41366-021-00771-z
death, ↓45.3%, p=0.001
Obesity, walking pace and risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality: analysis of UK Biobank
Details   UK Biobank retrospective 412,596 people, showing severe COVID-19 and COVID-19 mortality inversely associated with self-reported walking pace.
Feb 4
PrEPPEP Tavakol et al., Journal of Public Health, doi:10.1007/s10389-020-01468-9
severe case, ↓68.5%, p=0.05
Relationship between physical activity, healthy lifestyle and COVID-19 disease severity; a cross-sectional study
Details   Retrospective 206 patients in Iran, showing COVID-19 disease severity associated with lower physical activity.
Dec 6
PrEPPEP Zhang et al., J. Glob. Health, doi:10.7189/jogh-10-020514
death, ↓26.0%, p=0.17
Physical activity and COVID-19: an observational and Mendelian randomisation study
Details   UK Biobank retrospective showing significantly lower COVID-19 cases with objectively measured physical activity.
Oct 31
Early Mohamed et al., Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2021.07.012 The effect of aerobic exercise on immune biomarkers and symptoms severity and progression in patients with COVID-19: A randomized control trial
Details   Small RCT with 30 mild/moderate COVID-19 patients, 15 performing 2 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, showing decreased severity (WURSS) and improved immune markers with exercise.
Oct 10
PrEPPEP Brawner et al., Mayo Clinic Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.10.003
hosp., ↓74.2%, p=0.001
Inverse Relationship of Maximal Exercise Capacity to Hospitalization Secondary to Coronavirus Disease 2019
Details   Retrospective 246 COVID-19 patients in the USA, showing the risk of hospitalization inversely associated with maximal exercise capacity. Adjusted results are only provided for MET as a continuous variable.
Jul 31
PrEPPEP Hamer et al., Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.059
hosp., ↓27.5%, p=0.0004
Lifestyle risk factors, inflammatory mechanisms, and COVID-19 hospitalization: A community-based cohort study of 387,109 adults in UK
Details   UK Biobank retrospective analysis of 387,109 people, showing lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization with physical activity.
Oct 31
Meta Guthold et al., The Lancet Global Health, doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7
Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants
Details   Meta analysis of 358 surveys showing the prevalence of insufficient physical activity around the world. Prevalence in high-income countries was over twice as high, and has increased over time.
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