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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 studies   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Antiandrogens (meta) Metformin (meta)
Aspirin (meta) Molnupiravir (meta)
Bamlanivimab (meta) Nigella Sativa (meta)
Bromhexine (meta) Nitazoxanide (meta)
Budesonide (meta) Paxlovid (meta)
Casirivimab/i.. (meta) Povidone-Iod.. (meta)
Colchicine (meta) Probiotics (meta)
Conv. Plasma (meta) Proxalutamide (meta)
Curcumin (meta) Quercetin (meta)
Favipiravir (meta) Remdesivir (meta)
Fluvoxamine (meta) Sotrovimab (meta)
Hydroxychloro.. (meta) Vitamin A (meta)
Iota-carragee.. (meta) Vitamin C (meta)
Ivermectin (meta) Vitamin D (meta)
Melatonin (meta) Zinc (meta)

Other Treatments Global Adoption
COVID-19 early treatment: real-time analysis of 1,183 studies
Analysis of 30 COVID-19 early treatments, and database of 243 other potential treatments. 68 countries have approved early treatments. Treatments do not replace vaccines and other measures. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all variants. Denying efficacy increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Paxlovid 95% 0.05 [0.00-0.81] 1 $700 1,219 very few trials/events Cost Studies Patients Improvement, RR [CI] Sotrovimab 89% 0.11 [0.01-2.06] 1 $2,100 1,057 intravenous Proxalutamide 84% 0.16 [0.12-0.22] 3 n/a 1,090 few trials/events Iota-carragee.. 80% 0.20 [0.04-0.89] 1 $1 394 very few trials/events Casirivimab/i.. 77% 0.23 [0.11-0.50] 10 $2,100 37,194 intravenous/subcutaneous Nigella Sativa 67% 0.33 [0.21-0.52] 4 $5 1,291 few trials/events Ivermectin 66% 0.34 [0.27-0.42] 69 $1 49,938 Bamlanivimab 65% 0.35 [0.19-0.64] 9 $1,250 19,400 high variant dependence Melatonin 64% 0.36 [0.22-0.58] 11 $1 13,517 Povidone-Iod.. 60% 0.40 [0.25-0.65] 9 $1 2,256 Curcumin 59% 0.41 [0.24-0.70] 9 $5 867 few trials/events Antiandrogens 59% 0.41 [0.17-0.99] 6 $5 523 Quercetin 58% 0.42 [0.18-0.98] 6 $5 996 few trials/events Vitamin A 55% 0.45 [0.20-1.02] 5 $2 15,863 few trials/events Molnupiravir 55% 0.45 [0.24-0.85] 5 $700 2,724 Nitazoxanide 55% 0.45 [0.15-1.35] 6 $4 1,464 Zinc 48% 0.52 [0.41-0.66] 20 $1 50,281 Budesonide 45% 0.55 [0.31-0.98] 3 $4 8,751 few trials/events Bromhexine 45% 0.55 [0.40-0.77] 5 $5 291 few trials/events Vitamin D 43% 0.57 [0.49-0.65] 54 $1 106,048 Fluvoxamine 38% 0.62 [0.42-0.93] 5 $4 2,052 Favipiravir 34% 0.66 [0.52-0.85] 19 $20 5,062 Colchicine 31% 0.69 [0.54-0.88] 12 $1 17,762 Hydroxychloro.. 25% 0.75 [0.70-0.79] 300 $1 413,948 Probiotics 21% 0.79 [0.69-0.91] 13 $5 16,948 Aspirin 20% 0.80 [0.70-0.92] 23 $1 80,752 Remdesivir 19% 0.81 [0.73-0.89] 24 $3,120 97,505 Metformin 14% 0.86 [0.78-0.96] 11 $10 25,758 Vitamin C 13% 0.87 [0.77-0.99] 26 $1 30,635 Conv. Plasma -1% 1.01 [0.90-1.13] 13 $5,000 14,426 intravenous All studies combined (pooled effects, all stages) c19early.com Dec 7, 2021 Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of all studies combined (pooled effects, all stages). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages and outcomes depend on the distribution of stages and outcomes tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage and outcome analyses. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Paxlovid 95% 0.05 [0.00-0.81] 1 $700 1,219 very few trials/events Cost Studies Patients Improvement, RR [CI] Fluvoxamine 89% 0.11 [0.01-0.85] 2 $4 277 very few trials/events Sotrovimab 89% 0.11 [0.01-2.06] 1 $2,100 1,057 intravenous Vitamin D 86% 0.14 [0.07-0.30] 5 $1 526 few trials/events Nigella Sativa 84% 0.16 [0.05-0.48] 3 $5 915 few trials/events Budesonide 82% 0.18 [0.04-0.79] 1 $4 146 very few trials/events Bromhexine 79% 0.21 [0.06-0.72] 2 $5 96 very few trials/events Vitamin A 79% 0.21 [0.07-0.61] 2 $2 240 very few trials/events Quercetin 79% 0.21 [0.02-1.82] 2 $5 194 very few trials/events Bamlanivimab 79% 0.21 [0.11-0.41] 6 $1,250 17,653 high variant dependence Melatonin 78% 0.22 [0.06-0.75] 2 $1 91 very few trials/events Zinc 74% 0.26 [0.03-2.33] 3 $1 982 very few trials/events Proxalutamide 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.39] 2 n/a 445 very few trials/events Curcumin 71% 0.29 [0.11-0.74] 6 $5 707 few trials/events Povidone-Iod.. 71% 0.29 [0.16-0.54] 7 $1 878 few trials/events Antiandrogens 68% 0.32 [0.17-0.59] 2 $5 357 very few trials/events Casirivimab/i.. 68% 0.32 [0.16-0.67] 5 $2,100 22,392 intravenous/subcutaneous Ivermectin 66% 0.34 [0.24-0.47] 29 $1 27,658 Hydroxychloro.. 64% 0.36 [0.28-0.46] 33 $1 54,693 Molnupiravir 55% 0.45 [0.24-0.85] 5 $700 2,724 Nitazoxanide 49% 0.51 [0.13-1.95] 5 $4 1,414 few trials/events Favipiravir 47% 0.53 [0.37-0.75] 5 $20 1,241 very few trials/events Vitamin C 43% 0.57 [0.27-1.23] 3 $1 445 few trials/events Probiotics 34% 0.66 [0.55-0.80] 2 $5 323 few trials/events Metformin -15% 1.15 [0.73-1.83] 1 $10 423 very few trials/events Conv. Plasma -93% 1.93 [0.47-7.87] 3 $5,000 716 intravenous Early treatment studies (pooled effects) c19early.com Dec 7, 2021 Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment studies (pooled effects). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all outcomes are affected by the distribution of outcomes tested, please see detail pages for specific outcome analysis. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Paxlovid 95% 0.05 [0.00-0.81] 1 $700 1,219 very few trials/events Cost Studies Patients Improvement, RR [CI] Antiandrogens 95% 0.05 [0.00-2062] 1 $5 118 very few trials/events Sotrovimab 89% 0.11 [0.01-2.06] 1 $2,100 1,057 intravenous Povidone-Iod.. 88% 0.12 [0.03-0.50] 1 $1 606 very few trials/events Nigella Sativa 87% 0.13 [0.04-0.49] 2 $5 732 few trials/events Bromhexine 87% 0.13 [0.01-1.23] 2 $5 178 very few trials/events Molnupiravir 86% 0.14 [0.02-0.78] 2 $700 1,610 very few trials/events Proxalutamide 84% 0.16 [0.12-0.22] 3 n/a 1,090 few trials/events Melatonin 79% 0.21 [0.08-0.56] 4 $1 1,650 Casirivimab/i.. 77% 0.23 [0.06-0.92] 5 $2,100 31,254 intravenous/subcutaneous Bamlanivimab 71% 0.29 [0.08-1.01] 6 $1,250 17,830 high variant dependence Curcumin 70% 0.30 [0.14-0.64] 4 $5 434 Nitazoxanide 60% 0.40 [0.10-1.58] 3 $4 923 very few trials/events Quercetin 59% 0.41 [0.11-1.55] 4 $5 683 few trials/events Probiotics 59% 0.41 [0.23-0.72] 4 $5 539 few trials/events Ivermectin 56% 0.44 [0.33-0.58] 30 $1 37,195 Vitamin D 47% 0.53 [0.41-0.68] 31 $1 12,961 Vitamin A 42% 0.58 [0.07-4.59] 2 $2 207 few trials/events Colchicine 40% 0.60 [0.42-0.86] 10 $1 17,373 Budesonide 39% 0.61 [0.22-1.67] 1 $4 1,586 very few trials/events Zinc 39% 0.61 [0.49-0.78] 10 $1 10,416 Fluvoxamine 36% 0.64 [0.47-0.86] 3 $4 1,775 few trials/events Hydroxychloro.. 22% 0.78 [0.74-0.84] 185 $1 292,063 Vitamin C 20% 0.80 [0.66-0.98] 17 $1 14,205 Remdesivir 19% 0.81 [0.73-0.89] 23 $3,120 97,363 Metformin 19% 0.81 [0.73-0.90] 8 $10 7,303 Aspirin 17% 0.83 [0.71-0.96] 20 $1 70,208 Conv. Plasma -1% 1.01 [0.90-1.13] 13 $5,000 14,426 intravenous Favipiravir -2% 1.02 [0.71-1.46] 8 $20 3,772 All mortality results (all stages) c19early.com Dec 7, 2021 Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of all mortality results (all stages). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <25 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages depend on the distribution of stages tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage analyses. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Paxlovid 95% 0.05 [0.00-0.81] 1 $700 1,219 very few trials/events Cost Studies Patients Improvement, RR [CI] Bromhexine 91% 0.09 [0.01-1.59] 1 $5 78 very few trials/events Sotrovimab 89% 0.11 [0.01-2.06] 1 $2,100 1,057 intravenous Povidone-Iod.. 88% 0.12 [0.03-0.50] 1 $1 606 very few trials/events Nigella Sativa 87% 0.13 [0.04-0.49] 2 $5 732 few trials/events Molnupiravir 86% 0.14 [0.02-0.78] 2 $700 1,610 very few trials/events Bamlanivimab 86% 0.14 [0.04-0.50] 4 $1,250 17,048 high variant dependence Vitamin A 86% 0.14 [0.03-0.61] 1 $2 140 very few trials/events Casirivimab/i.. 84% 0.16 [0.03-0.95] 3 $2,100 19,513 intravenous/subcutaneous Curcumin 84% 0.16 [0.04-0.61] 2 $5 314 few trials/events Vitamin D 83% 0.17 [0.06-0.42] 3 $1 128 few trials/events Zinc 79% 0.21 [0.03-1.47] 1 $1 518 very few trials/events Quercetin 79% 0.21 [0.02-1.82] 2 $5 194 very few trials/events Hydroxychloro.. 75% 0.25 [0.16-0.40] 13 $1 50,628 Proxalutamide 73% 0.27 [0.03-2.39] 2 n/a 445 very few trials/events Ivermectin 52% 0.48 [0.32-0.72] 10 $1 25,482 Nitazoxanide 41% 0.59 [0.02-13.8] 2 $4 873 very few trials/events Favipiravir 33% 0.67 [0.28-1.61] 1 $20 774 very few trials/events Conv. Plasma -93% 1.93 [0.47-7.87] 3 $5,000 716 intravenous Vitamin C -204% 3.04 [0.13-72.9] 1 $1 98 very few trials/events Early treatment mortality results c19early.com Dec 7, 2021 Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment mortality results. Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <25 control events are shown in grey. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
Treatment
Improvement
  (early)
Studies
  (early)
SSotrovimab 89% 1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
BUBudesonide 82% 1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CICasirivimab/im.. 68% 5
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IVMIvermectin 66% 29
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(H)CQHydroxychloro.. 64% 33
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
FPVFavipiravir 47% 5
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
RDRemdesivir - 0
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Early treatments approved by >2 countries. 68 countries have officially approved treatments. Details.
Recent studies (see the individual treatment pages for all studies):

Dec 4
Early Gupta et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofab466.701 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓88.9%, p=0.12
Early COVID-19 Treatment with SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody Sotrovimab
Details   RCT 1,057 outpatients, 529 treated with sotrovimab, showing significantly lower hospitalization and ICU admission with treatment. NCT04545060. The preprint [1] for this study appears to show different results: 10, 6, 2 for ICU, ventilati..
Dec 3
PrEP Ma et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqab389 (Peer Reviewed)
hosp., ↓49.0%, p=0.04
Associations between predicted vitamin D status, vitamin D intake, and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Coronavirus Disease 2019 severity
Details   Analysis of 39,915 patients with 1,768 COVID+ cases based on surveys in the Nurses' Health Study II, showing higher predicted vitamin D levels associated with lower risk of COVID-19 cases. There was significantly lower risk of hospitaliza..
Dec 3
N/A Anonymous, Authorea, doi:10.22541/au.163854323.34557301/v1 (Review) (Preprint)
review
Treating a Pandemic Respiratory Disease with a Mutagen is a Doomsday Scenario 
Details   Review of molnupiravir's mutagenic mechanism of action, and analysis of the increased probability of creating dangerous variants.
Dec 2
Late Shohan et al., European Journal of Pharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.1746158 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓85.7%, p=0.24
The therapeutic efficacy of quercetin in combination with antiviral drugs in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: A randomized controlled trial
Details   Small RCT with 60 severe hospitalized patients in Iran, 30 treated with quercetin, showing shorter time until discharge. All patients received remdesivir or favipiravir, and vitamin C, vitamin D, famotidine, zinc, dexamethasone, and magne..
Dec 1
Late McCreary et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.30.21266756 (Preprint)
death, ↓93.0%, p=0.009
Association of subcutaneous or intravenous route of administration of casirivimab and imdevimab monoclonal antibodies with clinical outcomes in COVID-19
Details   Prospective study comparing subcutaneous and intravenous casirivimab/imdevimab, and comparing to a PSM matched control set, showing significantly lower mortality and hospitalization with treatment. Controls were matched with EUA-eligible ..
Nov 30
Levels Fatemi et al., Acute and Critical Care, doi:10.4266/acc.2021.00605 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓42.0%, p=0.07
Association of vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19 severity and mortality in Iranian people: a prospective observational study
Details   Prospective study of 248 hospitalized COVID+ patients in Iran with vitamin D levels measured in the previous year and again at admission, showing vitamin D status associated with severity and mortality.
Nov 30
Levels Kaur et al., Indian Journal of Clinical Practice, 32:6 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓89.8%, p<0.0001
Correlation of Vitamin D Levels with COVID-19 Severity and Outcome
Details   Prospective study of 81 hospitalized COVID+ patients in India, showing low vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality.
Nov 30
Early Alattar et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.29.21267042 (Preprint)
death, ↓33.3%, p=0.50
Favipiravir for the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019; a propensity score-matched cohort study
Details   PSM retrospective with 1,493 patients, showing significantly improved viral clearance with favipiravir. There were no signficant differences in clinical improvement or mortality. Mortality was lower (2.1% vs 3.1%), without statistical sig..
Nov 30
In Vitro Jitobaom et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1069947/v1 (Preprint) (In Vitro)
in vitro
Synergistic Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activity of Repurposed Anti-Parasitic Drug Combinations
Details   In Vitro study showing a strong synergistic effect of combinations of ivermectin, niclosamide, and chloroquine, with >10x reduction in IC50 compared to individual drugs.
Nov 26
Late Ferreira et al., Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, doi:10.1590/1806-9282.20210661 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑151.5%, p=0.03
Outcomes associated with Hydroxychloroquine and Ivermectin in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a single-center experience
Details   Retrospective 230 hospitalized patients in Brazil showing higher mortality with HCQ treatment. Authors note that the treatments were more likely to be offered to sicker patients. Authors indicate that they do not know when medication was ..
Nov 26
Early Merck News Release (News)
death, ↓89.0%, p=0.01
Merck and Ridgeback Biotherapeutics Provide Update on Results from MOVe-OUT Study of Molnupiravir, an Investigational Oral Antiviral Medicine, in At Risk Adults With Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19
Details   News release reporting results of the MOVe-OUT trial, showing significantly lower risk of hospitalization or death. In subgroup analysis efficacy was much lower with the delta variant. NCT04575597. Discussion of concerns with this trial ..
Nov 25
Early Ried et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.19902 (Peer Reviewed)
no recov., ↓30.6%, p=0.008
Therapies to Prevent Progression of COVID-19, Including Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, Zinc, and Vitamin D3 With or Without Intravenous Vitamin C: An International, Multicenter, Randomized Trial
Details   RCT 237 patients in Turkey, 162 treated with IV vitamin C in addition to HCQ/AZ/zinc/vitamin D used for all patients, showing significantly faster recovery with the addition of IV vitamin C. 97% of patients were vitamin D deficient, and ..
Nov 24
Levels Jenei et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.11.025 (Peer Reviewed) COVID-19 mortality is associated with low Vitamin D levels in patients with risk factors and/or advanced age
Details   Retrospective 257 hospitalized patients in Hungary, showing mortality associated with lower vitamin D levels for all patients, for patients >60, and for age-matched patients with risk factors or age >60. The non-age-matched analyses are c..
Nov 24
Early Holubar et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.22.21266690 (Preprint)
hosp., ↓89.0%, p=0.06
Favipiravir for treatment of outpatients with asymptomatic or uncomplicated COVID-19: a double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial
Details   Small RCT 116 mITT patients in the USA, 59 treated with favipiravir, showing no significant differences with treatment.
Nov 23
PrEP Ahmed et al., BioMed Research International, doi:10.1155/2021/1676914 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓99.3%, p=0.08
Factors Affecting the Incidence, Progression, and Severity of COVID-19 in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Details   Retrospective type 1 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia showing reduced risk of cases with HCQ prophylaxis.
Nov 23
Late Ozer et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27469 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓75.0%, p=0.09
Effectiveness and Safety of Ivermectin in COVID‐19 Patients: A Prospective Study at A Safety‐Net Hospital
Details   Small prospective PSM study in the USA, showing 75% lower mortality with ivermectin treatment, without reaching statistical significance, significantly shorter ventilation and ICU time, and longer hospitalization time. Authors leave the ..
Nov 21
Levels Asgari et al., Acta Medica Iranica, doi:10.18502/acta.v59i11.7779 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓72.5%, p=0.03
Vitamin D Insufficiency in Disease Severity and Prognosis of the Patients With SARS Corona Virus-2 Infection
Details   Retrospective 98 moderate/severe hospitalized COVID-19+ patients in Iran, showing significantly increased risk of mortality and severity with vitamin D deficiency. IR.AJAUMS.REC.1399.060.
Nov 19
In Vitro Tandel et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.18.469078 (Preprint) (In Vitro)
in vitro
Metformin Suppresses SARS-CoV-2 in Cell Culture
Details   In Vitro study showing metformin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in Caco2 cells. Metformin reduced viral titers by nearly 99%, and by about 90% when cells were treated prior to infection.
Nov 19
Late Chuah et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciab962 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑1154.0%, p=0.08
Efficacy of Early Treatment with Favipiravir on Disease Progression among High Risk COVID-19 Patients: A Randomized, Open-Label Clinical Trial
Details   RCT 500 hospitalized patients in Malaysia, showing no significant differences with favipiravir treatment.
Nov 18
Late RECOVERY Collaborative Group, The Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01825-0 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓4.0%, p=0.35
Aspirin in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial
Details   RCT 14,892 late stage patients, 7,351 treated with aspirin, showing slightly improved discharge and hospitalization time, and no significant difference for mortality. Results are limited due to low dose (150mg daily), late treatment (9 d..
Nov 17
PrEP Samajdar et al., Journal of the Association of Physicians India, 69:11 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓74.5%, p<0.0001
Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine for Chemo-Prophylaxis of COVID-19: A Questionnaire Survey of Perception and Prescribing Practice of Physicians vis-a-vis Outcomes
Details   Physician survey in India with 164 ivermectin prophylaxis, 129 HCQ prophylaxis, and 81 control patients, showing significantly lower COVID-19 cases with treatment. Details of the treatment and control groups and the definition of cases ar..
Nov 16
In Vitro Marín-Palma et al., Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules26226900 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
in vitro
Curcumin Inhibits In Vitro SARS-CoV-2 Infection In Vero E6 Cells through Multiple Antiviral Mechanisms
Details   In Vitro study showing antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Inhibition was seen with Vero E6 cells pre-infection and post-infection, and with D614G and the delta variant. The anti-inflammatory e..
Nov 16
PrEP Isa et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.10.21265889 (Preprint)
symp. case, ↓92.6%, p=0.002
Repeat Subcutaneous Administration of REGEN-COV® in Adults is Well-Tolerated and Prevents the Occurrence of COVID-19
Details   RCT 969 patients, 729 treated with monthly subcutaneous casirivimab/imdevimab, showing significantly lower risk of COVID-19 with treatment. There were no grade 3 injection site reactions or hypersensitivity reactions. Slightly more TEAEs ..
Nov 15
PrEP Oskotsky et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.33090 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑57.9%, p=0.62
Mortality Risk Among Patients With COVID-19 Prescribed Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressants
Details   Retrospective database analysis of 83,584 patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with existing fluoxetine use in PSM analysis. There were 11 fluvoxamine patients, showing non-statistically significant higher mortality.
Nov 14
In Vitro Bahun et al., Food Chemistry, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131594 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
in vitro
Inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro main protease by plant polyphenols
Details   In Silico and In Vitro study of plant polyphenols identifying quercetin, curcumin, ellagic acid, epigallocatechin gallate and resveratrol as SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors with IC50 between 11.8µM and 23.4µM. Real-time binding was analyzed..
Nov 12
Levels Sacristán et al., Transplantation Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.08.060 (Peer Reviewed) Risk of severe COVID-19 infection in kidney transplant recipients
Details   Retrospective 63 COVID+ kidney transplant recipients, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels before infection in patients requiring ICU admission.
Nov 12
Levels Gönen et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13114047 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓65.8%, p=0.62
Rapid and Effective Vitamin D Supplementation May Present Better Clinical Outcomes in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Patients by Altering Serum INOS1, IL1B, IFNg, Cathelicidin-LL37, and ICAM1
Details   Retrospective 867 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Turkey, showing worse outcomes with vitamin D deficiency (without statistical significance); followed by a prospective study of 210 patients with vitamin D supplementation for those that..
Nov 10
Levels Asghar et al., Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., doi:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0577 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓53.1%, p=0.05
Evaluation of Vitamin-D Status and Its Association with Clinical Outcomes Among COVID-19 Patients in Pakistan
Details   Retrospective 91 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with mortality in multivariate Cox regression.
Nov 9
Late Shenoy et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.08.21265884 (Preprint)
death, ↑29.5%, p=0.54
Favipiravir In Adults with Moderate to Severe COVID-19: A Phase 3 Multicentre, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Details   Late stage RCT with 353 hospitalized patients, showing no significant differences with favipiravir treatment overall, however a trend towards benefit was seen within patients treated relatively early, including a statistically significant..
Nov 9
Late Stone et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1048271/v1 (Preprint) Rapid increase of SpO2 on room air for 34 severe COVID-19 patients after ivermectin-based combination treatment: 55-62% normalization within 12-24 hours
Details   Retrospective severe COVID-19 patients in Zimbabwe treated with ivermectin, doxycycline, and zinc. For 34 with SpO2 tracking, there was rapid improvement in SpO2, with 55% recovery towards SpO2=97 within 12 hours. For all 92 severe cases,..
Nov 8
Late Tehrani et al., Urology Journal, doi:10.22037/uj.v18i.6863 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓87.1%, p=0.13
An investigation into the Effects of Intravenous Vitamin C on Pulmonary CT Findings and Clinical Outcomes of Patients with COVID 19 Pneumonia A Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   RCT 54 late stage patients, 18 treated with IV vitamin C (2g every 6h for 5 days), showing significant relative improvements in oxygen saturation and respiratory rate.
Nov 8
PEP Regeneron Press Release (News)
hosp., ↓92.3%, p=0.03
New phase 3 analyses show that a single dose of REGEN-COV® (casirivimab and imdevimab) provides long-term protection against COVID-19
Details   Long-term results for PEP RCT NCT04452318, with 841 baseline seronegative casirivimab/imdevimab patients and 842 placebo patients, showing significantly lower cases with treatment.
Nov 6
Review Goldstein, L., TrialSite News (Review) (News)
news
Molnupiravir: mutagenic, carcinogenic, authorized in the UK
Details   Discussion of concerns with molnupiravir and the MOVe-OUT trial. Author notes that results showing bone marrow toxicity in dogs were mentioned in this preprint [1], but removed from the journal version [2]. Some additional details were pr..
We aim to cover the most promising early treatments for COVID-19. We use pre-specified effect extraction criteria that prioritizes more serious outcomes, for details see methods. For specific outcomes and different treatment stages see the individual pages. Not all treatments are covered here, effectiveness has been reported for many other treatments in studies. Of the 1,183 studies, 785 present results comparing with a control group, 692 are treatment studies, and 93 analyze outcomes based on serum levels. There are 17 animal studies, 40 in silico studies, 58 in vitro studies, and 66 meta analyses.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
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