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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 treatment studies  COVID-19 studies   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Antiandrogens (meta) Lactoferrin (meta)
Aspirin (meta) Melatonin (meta)
Bamlaniv../e.. (meta) Metformin (meta)
Bebtelovimab (meta) Molnupiravir (meta)
Bromhexine (meta) N-acetylcys.. (meta)
Budesonide (meta) Nigella Sativa (meta)
Cannabidiol (meta) Nitazoxanide (meta)
Casirivimab/i.. (meta) Paxlovid (meta)
Colchicine (meta) Peg.. Lambda (meta)
Conv. Plasma (meta) Povidone-Iod.. (meta)
Curcumin (meta) Probiotics (meta)
Diet (meta) Proxalutamide (meta)
Ensitrelvir (meta) Quercetin (meta)
Ensovibep (meta) Remdesivir (meta)
Exercise (meta) Sleep (meta)
Famotidine (meta) Sotrovimab (meta)
Favipiravir (meta) Tixagev../c.. (meta)
Fluvoxamine (meta) Vitamin A (meta)
Hydroxychlor.. (meta) Vitamin C (meta)
Iota-carragee.. (meta) Vitamin D (meta)
Ivermectin (meta) Zinc (meta)

Other Treatments Global Adoption
COVID-19 early treatment: real-time analysis of 1,812 studies
Analysis of 42 COVID early treatments, approvals in 72 countries, database of 834 treatments.  
Treatments do not replace vaccines and other measures. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all variants. Denying efficacy increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage.
Lim
Review of in vitro, animal, and clinical studies supporting the use of povidone-iodine for SARS-CoV-2.
Wong
4,943 patients paxlovid late treatment PSM: 68% lower mortality [p<0.0001], 31% lower ventilation [p=0.41], 67% lower combined mortality/ICU admission [p<0.0001], and 7% shorter hospitalization [p=0.04]
Yip
88,962 patients molnupiravir early treatment: 12% higher combined mortality/ICU admission [p=0.66] and 17% higher hospitalization [p=0.06]
Pascua
Review of a multiphasic multidrug early treatment protocol for COVID-19 in Honduras, showing one death from 415 patients, which was for a patient..
Fiore
116 patients vitamin D late treatment: 93% lower mortality [p=0.02], 50% lower ventilation [p=0.36], 50% lower ICU admission [p=0.36], and 48% lower progression [p=0.04]
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Iota-carragee.. 80% [11-96%] 1 $1 394 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Proxalutamide 78% [70-83%] 4 $500 1,953 limited data Ivermectin 64% [56-71%] 82 $1 129,808 Quercetin 63% [27-81%] 9 $5 1,279 Casirivimab/i.. 61% [42-74%] 20 $2,100 46,179 variant dependent Nigella Sativa 61% [40-75%] 7 $5 1,977 Bamlaniv../e.. 55% [30-71%] 14 $1,250 24,423 variant dependent Diet 54% [27-71%] 7 $0 585,031 Paxlovid 54% [20-74%] 5 $529 9,853 independent trial refused Povidone-Iod.. 53% [37-65%] 13 $1 2,749 Vitamin A 50% [-9-77%] 8 $2 17,951 Bromhexine 50% [-8-77%] 6 $5 684 very limited data Melatonin 49% [33-62%] 16 $1 14,009 Lactoferrin 48% [30-62%] 4 $5 786 Ensitrelvir 45% [19-63%] 1 $500 28 very limited data Ensovibep 45% [-276-92%] 2 $2,100 400 very limited data Tixagev../c.. 42% [2-66%] 2 $855 6,293 variant dependent Curcumin 42% [32-50%] 16 $5 1,697 Budesonide 39% [23-52%] 8 $4 9,951 Exercise 39% [31-46%] 33 $0 809,459 Vitamin D 39% [32-46%] 79 $1 134,583 Colchicine 38% [27-48%] 32 $1 22,499 Peg.. Lambda 35% [-132-82%] 3 $500 2,116 subcutaneous Fluvoxamine 35% [15-51%] 7 $4 2,651 Sleep 35% [20-48%] 7 $0 1,636 Nitazoxanide 34% [-27-66%] 11 $4 3,025 Molnupiravir 32% [5-52%] 11 $707 14,747 mutagenic/teratogenic Zinc 30% [15-41%] 29 $1 55,226 Metformin 27% [20-33%] 39 $10 118,536 Hydroxychlor.. 25% [21-28%] 345 $1 457,932 Antiandrogens 23% [13-32%] 34 $5 62,864 Favipiravir 23% [11-34%] 40 $20 17,123 N-acetylcys.. 23% [11-33%] 13 $1 24,349 Probiotics 21% [10-31%] 16 $5 17,535 Sotrovimab 20% [-96-67%] 5 $2,100 4,524 variant dependent Vitamin C 17% [7-27%] 43 $1 39,120 Remdesivir 16% [6-25%] 35 $3,120 123,330 intravenous Aspirin 14% [7-20%] 44 $1 120,131 Famotidine 14% [2-24%] 22 $5 76,267 Conv. Plasma -1% [-15-12%] 14 $5,000 15,607 Cannabidiol -53% [-616-68%] 3 $25 1,153 limited data Bebtelovimab -151% [-6014-90%] 1 $1,200 380 intravenous All studies (pooled effects, all stages) c19early.com May 24, 2022 Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of all studies (pooled effects, all stages). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages and outcomes depend on the distribution of stages and outcomes tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage and outcome analyses. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Ensovibep 89% [-127-99%] 1 $2,100 400 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Nigella Sativa 83% [51-94%] 4 $5 967 limited data Budesonide 82% [21-96%] 1 $4 146 very limited data Bromhexine 79% [28-94%] 2 $5 96 very limited data Vitamin A 79% [39-93%] 2 $2 240 very limited data Melatonin 78% [25-94%] 2 $1 91 very limited data Lactoferrin 76% [-485-99%] 1 $5 121 very limited data Remdesivir 76% [39-90%] 2 $3,120 934 intravenous Vitamin D 74% [45-88%] 7 $1 16,914 Povidone-Iod.. 72% [49-84%] 8 $1 1,078 limited data Proxalutamide 71% [-75-95%] 3 $500 1,175 very limited data Bamlaniv../e.. 69% [40-84%] 8 $1,250 17,980 variant dependent Antiandrogens 68% [41-83%] 2 $5 357 very limited data Aspirin 67% [-696-99%] 1 $1 280 very limited data Paxlovid 63% [-32-90%] 3 $529 2,939 independent trial refused Ivermectin 63% [53-72%] 32 $1 55,955 Hydroxychlor.. 63% [53-70%] 38 $1 56,773 Zinc 61% [-16-87%] 4 $1 3,010 limited data Casirivimab/i.. 58% [33-74%] 14 $2,100 30,180 variant dependent Curcumin 48% [19-67%] 7 $5 757 limited data Famotidine 48% [-32-80%] 1 $5 55 very limited data Sotrovimab 46% [-149-88%] 4 $2,100 4,164 variant dependent Ensitrelvir 45% [19-63%] 1 $500 28 very limited data Molnupiravir 44% [0-69%] 7 $707 3,944 mutagenic/teratogenic Fluvoxamine 39% [-64-78%] 4 $4 876 very limited data Quercetin 38% [-8-65%] 3 $5 244 very limited data Peg.. Lambda 35% [-132-82%] 3 $500 2,116 subcutaneous Probiotics 34% [21-45%] 3 $5 673 limited data Nitazoxanide 33% [-78-75%] 7 $4 2,469 Favipiravir 29% [-6-52%] 9 $20 9,302 very limited data Metformin 27% [-94-72%] 1 $10 418 very limited data Vitamin C 22% [-78-65%] 4 $1 445 N-acetylcys.. 21% [1-37%] 2 $1 416 very limited data Conv. Plasma -93% [-687-53%] 3 $5,000 716 very limited data Bebtelovimab -151% [-6014-90%] 1 $1,200 380 intravenous Early treatment studies (pooled effects) c19early.com May 24, 2022 Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment studies (pooled effects). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <50 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all outcomes are affected by the distribution of outcomes tested, please see detail pages for specific outcome analysis. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Ensovibep 89% [-127-99%] 1 $2,100 400 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Tixagev../c.. 86% [-198-99%] 1 $855 5,172 variant dependent Paxlovid 81% [-11-97%] 2 $529 7,028 independent trial refused Lactoferrin 79% [-48-97%] 1 $5 547 very limited data Nigella Sativa 79% [35-93%] 3 $5 1,113 limited data Proxalutamide 78% [70-83%] 4 $500 1,953 limited data Bromhexine 77% [-39-96%] 3 $5 550 very limited data Povidone-Iod.. 72% [8-92%] 2 $1 872 limited data Peg.. Lambda 72% [-149-97%] 1 $500 1,936 subcutaneous Vitamin A 63% [-246-96%] 4 $2 267 Curcumin 61% [29-79%] 6 $5 605 Quercetin 59% [-55-89%] 4 $5 683 limited data Probiotics 59% [29-77%] 5 $5 889 Bamlaniv../e.. 56% [5-80%] 10 $1,250 22,988 variant dependent Melatonin 54% [26-72%] 8 $1 1,828 Casirivimab/i.. 53% [15-74%] 8 $2,100 32,929 variant dependent Ivermectin 53% [39-64%] 42 $1 117,021 Molnupiravir 46% [-74-83%] 4 $707 12,413 mutagenic/teratogenic Exercise 44% [33-53%] 12 $0 782,756 Sleep 43% [10-64%] 1 $0 0 very limited data Nitazoxanide 41% [-30-73%] 5 $4 1,372 limited data Colchicine 40% [26-51%] 27 $1 20,771 Vitamin D 39% [28-49%] 45 $1 32,796 Budesonide 38% [20-53%] 6 $4 2,786 Sotrovimab 38% [-51-75%] 4 $2,100 3,596 variant dependent Fluvoxamine 36% [14-53%] 3 $4 1,775 limited data Antiandrogens 34% [14-49%] 24 $5 59,004 Metformin 33% [25-40%] 31 $10 74,262 Zinc 29% [7-46%] 15 $1 12,413 N-acetylcys.. 29% [1-49%] 9 $1 23,887 Vitamin C 25% [9-39%] 27 $1 19,087 Diet 25% [-60-64%] 2 $0 281,639 limited data Hydroxychlor.. 21% [16-26%] 212 $1 325,877 Remdesivir 18% [9-26%] 32 $3,120 122,149 intravenous Famotidine 16% [2-27%] 15 $5 70,199 Aspirin 13% [6-19%] 39 $1 106,422 Favipiravir 8% [-11-24%] 21 $20 13,597 Conv. Plasma -1% [-15-12%] 14 $5,000 15,607 Bebtelovimab -151% [-6014-90%] 1 $1,200 380 intravenous Cannabidiol -181% [-658--4%] 1 $25 0 very limited data All mortality results (all stages) c19early.com May 24, 2022 Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of all mortality results (all stages). Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <25 control events are shown in grey. Pooled results across all stages depend on the distribution of stages tested - for example late stage treatment may be less effective and if the majority of studies are late stage this may obscure the efficacy of early treatment. Please see the specific stage analyses. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Paxlovid 96% [32-100%] 1 $529 2,085 independent trial refused Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Bromhexine 91% [-59-99%] 1 $5 78 very limited data Ensovibep 89% [-127-99%] 1 $2,100 400 very limited data Povidone-Iod.. 88% [50-97%] 1 $1 606 very limited data Nigella Sativa 87% [51-96%] 2 $5 732 limited data Molnupiravir 86% [22-98%] 2 $707 1,610 mutagenic/teratogenic Vitamin A 86% [39-97%] 1 $2 140 very limited data Curcumin 84% [39-96%] 2 $5 314 limited data Quercetin 79% [-82-98%] 2 $5 194 very limited data Casirivimab/i.. 78% [8-95%] 5 $2,100 19,991 variant dependent Vitamin D 76% [37-91%] 4 $1 16,466 limited data Sotrovimab 76% [-2-94%] 3 $2,100 3,236 variant dependent Bamlaniv../e.. 72% [24-90%] 6 $1,250 17,827 variant dependent Peg.. Lambda 72% [-149-97%] 1 $500 1,936 subcutaneous Hydroxychlor.. 72% [57-81%] 15 $1 52,740 Proxalutamide 71% [-75-95%] 3 $500 1,175 very limited data Probiotics 67% [-716-99%] 1 $5 350 very limited data Remdesivir 66% [4-88%] 1 $3,120 372 intravenous Zinc 55% [36-67%] 2 $1 2,546 limited data Ivermectin 43% [14-62%] 12 $1 53,735 Nitazoxanide 41% [-1278-98%] 2 $4 873 very limited data Metformin 27% [-94-72%] 1 $10 418 very limited data Favipiravir 19% [-26-47%] 2 $20 8,428 very limited data Conv. Plasma -93% [-687-53%] 3 $5,000 716 very limited data Bebtelovimab -151% [-6014-90%] 1 $1,200 380 intravenous Vitamin C -204% [-7189-87%] 1 $1 98 very limited data Early treatment mortality results c19early.com May 24, 2022 Favors treatment Favors control
Random effects meta-analysis of early treatment mortality results. Treatments with ≤3 studies with distinct authors or with <25 control events are shown in grey. Protocols typically combine multiple treatments which may be complementary and synergistic, and the SOC in studies often includes other treatments.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Quercetin 93% [73-98%] 3 $5 346 very limited data Cost Studies Patients Improvement Relative Risk Casirivimab/i.. 93% [79-97%] 3 $2,100 3,061 variant dependent Ivermectin 83% [74-89%] 16 $1 19,365 Iota-carragee.. 80% [22-95%] 1 $1 394 very limited data